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41 Cards in this Set

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Woodrow Wilson
US president, Democratic, 1913-21; led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations
Porfirio Diaz
Mexican dictator, 1876-1911; brought stability and encourage foreign investment in Mexico's economic development
Francisco Madero
Mexican president 1911-13; investors in Mexico feared he would confiscate all property owned by foreigners, business people and foreign diplomats plotted to overthrow him
General Victoriano Huerto
Mexican military officer & president 1913-14; established a harsh military dictatorship; Wilson became president,was hostile to the Huerta administration, recalled ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, demanded Huerta step aside for democratic elections, and when he refused President Wilson landed US troops to take over Mexico's most important seaport Veracruz; he would bow to pressure and resigned
Venustiano Carranza
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution; president 1915-20; during his administration Mexico's current constitution was drafted
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary; led raid of Columbus, New Mexico in response to U.S. government's official recognition of the Carranza regime. They attacked a US Cavalry detachment, seized 100 horses and mules, burned the town, and killed 17 of its residents. Wilson responded by sending American troops under Gen. Pershing into Mexico to capture him; year-long expedition failed and resulted in a clash with Mexican army
Gen. John J. Pershing
U.S. general; "Black Jack" Pershing; led failed expedition that hunted Pancho Villa; commanded the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in WWI; was the most celebrated American leader of WWI; promoted to General of the Armies of the United States - a rank only he held.
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy - alliance to support each other in the event of an attack against any of them by two or more great powers
Triple Entente
Great Britain, France & Russia - alliance in response to the Triple Alliance
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Slavic nationalist precipated Austrian declaration of war against Serbia which triggered WWI
Allied Powers
the countries -- Great Britain, France, Russia and Italy -- that fought together against the Central Powers
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria -- alliance during WWI
U.S. neutrality
Americans hoped the Atlantic would keep them out of WWI; exports to Allies would quadruple; America would "lend" the Allies $2 billion & purchased another $2 billion in war bonds
1915 British passenger oceanliner; sunk by German U-boat; 1200 (128 Americans) died; some Americans felt this act was grounds to get into WWI
Sussex Pledge
German u-boat attacked French steamer Sussex; Wilson issued ultimatum - end attacks on unarmed ships or risk severing of diplomatic relations; Germans pledged to end sinking of passenger ships; to search merchant ships; make provisions for passengers and crews before sinking merchant ships
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican candidate narrowly defeated by Woodrow Wilson in 1916
new war weapons
poison gas, machine guns, u-boats, tanks, depth charge
Zimmerman telegram
telegram from foreign secretary of Germany to ambassador in Mexico; proposed that Mexico join Germany and pre-emptive strike on the U.S. - backed by Germany, Mexico would gain Texas, New Mexico and Arizona - telegram was intercepted by the British and relayed to the Americans
"safe for democracy"
Wilson's speech to ask Congress to declare war on Germany; "the people of the United States woud be fighting to make the world safe for democracy and prmote peace and safety to all nations"
Selective Service Act
1917; required all men between 21 and 30 to register for military service
Allied counter-attack against a desperate German offensive in 1918; Americans helped stop the advance
German advance was stopped by French; 21 February 1916 until 19 December 1916 caused over an estimated 700,000 casualties; one of the longest and bloodiest battles in history
dough boys
the nickname given to the American Expeditionary Force during WWI
St. Mihiel
a battle in the Meuse-Argonne operation in World War I (1918); the battle in which American troops launched their first offensive in France
temporary stop to fighting - 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month - November 11, 1918
War Industries Board
government organization that handled purchasing for both the Allies and the U.S.; attempted to operate the whole U.S. as a single factory dominated by one management; set production quotas and allocated raw materials
Bernard Baruch
Wall Street stockbroker who led the War Industries Board during WWI
Fuel Administration
government organization during WWI that was in charge of boosting coal and oil production while encouraging people to conserve; introduced daylight savings time & shortened work weeks for nonwar-related factories
War Labor Board
federal agency that worked to prevent labor disputes during wartime
Food Administration and Herbert Hoover
President Wilson appointed Hoover head of the Food Administration to supervise efforts to reduce food consumption; Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, ; "Food Will Win the War - Don't Waste It"
Espionage and Sedition Acts
legislation passed to prevent spying and resistance to the war effort; "Loyalty Leagues" encouraged Americans to spy on neighbors and report those who might be disloyal; authority to ban certain newspapers; people could be arrested for criticizing the President or questioning the war effort
Schenck v. United States
1919 Supreme Court ruling; concerning whether a defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft; Schenck circulated a flyer to newly-drafted men; Court ruled the conviction was constitutional; First Amendment did NOT protect speech encouraging insubordination; set the "clear and present danger" standard
League of Nations
international organization founded after WWI with goals of reducing armaments and settling disputes between countries; advocated by President Wilson in his Fourteen Points speech
Fourteen Points
Wilson's speech that outlined the reconstruction of Europe after WWI; included freedom of seas, abolishing secret treaties, disarmament, creation of an international association of nations (League of Nations)
Big Four
U.S.(President Wilson),
Britain (Prime Minister Lloyd George),
France (Premier Clemenceau),
Italy (Premier Orlando)
Versailles Peace Treaty
ended WWI; Germany lost territory, stripped of colonies, German army and navy was virtually eliminated, paid war damages AND had to repay Allies for cost of war -- Ottoman Empire lost territory, Austria-Hungary was split
Red Scare
period of intense anti-communism 1917-1920; characterized by widespread fears of communist influence on U.S. society and communist infiltration of American government
expelled from a country; many immigrants were deported when suspected of being Communist durin the Red Scare
Ku Klux Klan
began as secret/violent white supremist organization; would reach a peak of 2 million members during the 1920s
18th Amendment
established Prohibition
19th Amendment
guarantees women right to vote