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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Square Deal
Teddy Roosevelt's approach to social problems; described as a belief that all people should have an equal opportunity to succeed through stron gpersonal ethics, a sense of fairness, & adherence to the spirit of the law
Expedition Act
passed in 1903; making the antitrust suits a high priority in the nation's legal system
Coal Strike of 1902
marked the turn of the U.S. Government from strikebreaker to peacemaker in industrial disputes; low wages, frequent layoffs, requirement to live in cheaply built company towns led 150,000 coal miners to strike - John Mitchell (UMW leader) against George Baer (spokesperson for employers) could not come to an agreement; Roosevelt invited the parties to the White House; he considered sending in federal troops to seize the mines but J.P. Morgan convinced the mine operators to back down.
the planned management of natural resources to prevent destruction or neglect
Yellowstone National Park
1872; first national park in the USA; home of "Old Faithful" geyser
Forest Reserve Act
1891; empowered presidents to set aside land for national forests and withdraw forest lands from the public domain
Hepburn Act
1906; gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to force railroads to obey orders; abolished the "free pass" railroads granted to politicians, widened the jurisdiction of the ICC, rr corporations were restrained from operating other businesses
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
1909; bill contained high duties on iron ore, coal, etc., allowed for a corporate income tax, est. a tariff commission to make a scientific study of rates, provided some flexibility at the discretion of the President

reduced the United States tariff rate to 37%; as President Taft asked for more reductions, the tariff split the Republican Party into the Progressives and the Old Guard
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
a dispute during the Taft administration in 1909 between Secretary of the Interior Richard A. Ballinger and the head of the Forestry Service in the Department of Agriculture, Gifford Pinchot.

Ballinger reopened lands for private purchase that had been protected; Pinchot protested and accused Ballinger of fraud; Pres. Taft dismissed Pinchot for insubordination; public viewed Taft's action as a move against conservationism and his popularity plummeted
New Nationalism
Roosevelt's 1912 platform - much more radical program; accepted big business as a fact of life and proposed a more powerful federal govt and a strong executive to keep it under control; favored both state and federal legislation to actively promote human welfare, including laws to protect women and children in the labor force & workman's compensation for those injured on the job
Bull Moose Party
Progressive political party formed by Teddy Roosevelt 1912
nickname for Teddy Roosevelt; fighting the abuses of big business monopolies; undue praise after his govt prosecuted the Northern Securities Trust -- "What I am interested in is getting the hand of government on all of them – this is what I want," he said. He called for the strict regulation of business, not its destruction.
Progressive Platform of 1912
demanded reforms such as a more direct democracy through referendums & initiatives; for conservation of natural resources for the general welfare; for woman suffrage; labor reforms (prohibition of child labor); called for revision of currency system; introduce inheritance tax
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson' platform 1912 ; focused on revitalization of the American economy; viewed monopolies as enemies of free competition; advocted the use of federal power to ensure more equality of opportunity
Candidates of the 1912 Presidential Election
Woodrow Wilson - Democrat
Theodore Roosevelt - Progressive (Bull Moose Party)
Wm Howard Taft - Republican
Who won in 1912?
Woodrow Wilson - Democrat
Underwood Tariff
1913; first substancial drop in import duties since 1857; reduced basic US tariff to 28%, revised income tax under new 16th amendment
Federal Reserve Act
1913; est the Federal Reserve System; created an independent central system of 12 federal reserve banks; all national banks were required to join; these "reserves" could provide support to individual banks in times of difficulty
Federal Trade Commission
1914; independent US agency that has the power to investigate and regulate business practices; had power to order companies to "cease and desist" from unfair conduct
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914; act forbade Interlocking directorates, Ownership of stock in competing corporation, Price cutting below cost to eliminate competitor; since labor unions were exempt - boycotts, peaceful strikes and peaceful picketing were legalized. Injunctions could be used to settle labor disputes only when property damage was threatened.