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33 Cards in this Set

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Fireside Chats
informal talks in which President FDR calmly but confidently explained in simple terms the nation's problems and how the New Deal planned to defeat the Depression
"brain trust"
FDR's group of economists, political scientists, and attorneys that advised him and helped him plan the New Deal recovery programs
Frances Perkins
first woman cabinet officer; Roosevelt's secretary of labor; long-time advocate of minimum wage and maximum hour laws, child labor restrictions, and other progressive reforms - she was one of only two cabinet members to serve throughout Roosevelt's four terms
Hundred Days
Mar 9 - Jun 16, 1933 - Roosevelt's first weeks in office were called The Hundred Days, as during the first part of his administration he authored and approved a flurry of Congressional acts to institute immediate change and keep the nation's economy from destabilizing.
First New Deal
1933- early 35 - dominating goals of the Roosevelt administration were Recovery and Relief; he and his advisors thought that a series of temporary measures could get the economy moving again
BANK HOLIDAY: 6 March 1933 -- closed all banks; government then investigated banks and only those that were sound were allowed to reopen.
FEDERAL EMERGENCY RELIEF ASSOCIATION [FERA]: 1933 -- gave direct relief in the form of money as aid to states and localities for distribution to needy. Ultimately FERA distributed about $3-billion in relief to 8 million families -- one-sixth of the population.
CIVIL WORKS ADMINISTRATION [CWA]: Money to states to build 225,000 miles of roads, 30,000 schools, and 3,700 playing fields and athletic grounds.
PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION [PWA]: Loans to private industry to build public works such as dams, ports, bridges, sewage plants, government buildings, power plants, airports, hospitals, and other useful projects.
FARM CREDIT ASSOCIATION [FCA]: 1933 -- helped the 40% of farms that were mortgaged by providing low-interest loans (2.25% per year) through a Federal Land Bank for 50-year terms.
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS [CCC]: 1933 -- provided jobs and relocation for young men (18-25) in rural settings under direction of U.S. Army. CCC workers built public parks, cut fire trails, planted trees, built small dams, helped with flood control, reclaimed ruined land, drained swamps, and helped with conservation.
HOMEOWNERS' LOAN CORPORATION [HOLC]: 1933 -- lowered mortgages to stop foreclosures.
ABANDONMENT OF GOLD STANDARD: 1933 -- executive order by FDR making it easier for money to get into circulation. Reconstruction Finance Corporation set new value of gold.
FEDERAL SECURITIES ACT [FSA]: 1933 -- allowed government to investigate stock market.
WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION [WPA]: 1933 -- established to put men to work on jobs of public usefulness. 5,900 schoolhouses built or repaired; parks, playgrounds, and pools built; roads, streets, and sewage plants built; 1,000 airfields laid out; 2,500 hospitals placed in areas not previously served. WPA also had FEDERAL ARTS PROJECTS to provide jobs of cultural usefulness to continue dramas, concerts, writing (guidebooks, local history books, oral histories), murals, and sculptures. These projects kept the American arts alive and vigorous.
RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION [NRA], which administered process for devising industry-wide codes of fair business practices. NRA's symbol was a blue eagle, slogan -- "We Do Our Part." The NIRA's ¤7a recognized the right of labor to bargain collectively for working hours, wages, and conditions. The NRA was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935 [Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States] -- but ¤7a (the Wagner Act) survived constitutional challenge. (See below, under REFORM -- NLRB.)
AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ACT [AAA]: 1933 -- limited farm production to help raise prices; paid for by taxing food processors. Declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court in 1936 [United States v. Butler]. 1938 -- AAA II enacted, creating the Soil Bank, allotments, parities, surplus controls, farm insurance, and soil conservation districts.
NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINSITRATION [NYA]: 1935 -- helped keep youth in school with 500,000 helped in colleges and 600,000 in high schools provided with jobs.
FEDERAL HOUSING ACT [FHA]: 1934 -- helped repair, rebuild, and insure older homes.
GLASS/STEAGALL ACT -- gave government power to investigate banking conditions, vested greater regulatory powers in Federal Reserve Board.
FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION [FDIC] -- insured savings of bank depositors and monitored soundness of insured banking institutions.
FEDERAL SAVINGS & LOAN INSURANCE CORPORATION [FSLIC] -- insured savings of depositors in savings & loan institutions and monitored soundness of insured S&Ls.
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [SEC]: regulated stock and bond trading; regulated exchanges where stocks and bonds are sold, and legislated requirements for disclosure of fair stock information.
WAGNER ACT created NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD [NLRB] which reaffirmed labor's rights to bargain for wages, hours, and working conditions, to strike, and to arbitration of grievances.
FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT [FLSA]: 1938 -- set minimum wages and maximum working hours.
AUTHORITY [REA]: helped to bring electricity to rural "pockets of poverty" that could not afford lines.
SOCIAL SECURITY: Provided for unemployed, aged, dependent, and handicapped. Financed by FICA taxes paid by employee, matched by employer and Federal government.
deficit spending
federal government's annual spending exceeds its income
"pump priming"
pouring government money into the economy through loans and federal spending in the hope of stimulating recovery
when a borrower cannot make loan payments, the bank seizes the property that was put up as security for the loan
Farm Security Administration
Depression-era agency that granted small farmers and tenant farmers money to purchase farms -- when production was discouraged, the tenant farmers and small holders suffered most by not being able to ship enough to market to pay rents. The FSA attempted to correct this problem by enabling farmers to purchase holdings. Once these share croppers and migrants had individual farms, they would benefit from the increased agricultural prices.
The Dust Bowl
portions of the Great Plains that suffered from a years-long drought leading to soil erosion and dust storms; crops failed forcing many farmers to leave in search of work elsewhere particularly California
Indian Reorganization Act 1934
(Wheeler-Howard Act or Indian New Deal)secured new rights for Native Americans including Alaskan natives; repealed the allotment policy and returned to tribal ownership Native American lands previously open to sale
American Federation of Labor
AFL; one of the first federations of labor unions; advocated strikes only when necessary and believed in collective bargaining; under the NIRA, membership jumped by about one million workers
Father Charles E. Coughlin
the "Radio Priest"; one of the first evangelists to spread his message by radio in 1926; early supporter of FDR, would later accuse the President of turning the New Deal into a "raw deal"; his political organization - National Union for Social Justice -- called for such socialistic measure as heavy taxes on the wealthy and a guaranteed income for everyone; would be ordered to return to position of parish priest after his views became Anti-Semitic; credited as being of the major demagogues of the 20th century for being able to influence politics without ever having held a political office
Huey Long
"Kingfish"; 1928 Louisiana governor; 1930 elected to US Senate with the backing of the rural poor, became extremely powerful in his home state and used it as a base on which to build national popularity; proposed confiscating the property of the rich and giving every family a home, $2000 peryear, and a free college education for their children; would be assassinated in 1935 one month after announcing his intent to run for president against Roosevelt
Dr. Francis Townsend
American physician who came up with a revolving old-age pension proposal; would influence the establishment of Roosevelt's administration's Social Security system
Second New Deal
1935; new phase that showed a greater concern for the less fortunate and abandoned efforts to enlist the support of businesses -- major accomplishments: Social Security Act and the Wagner Act
combination of separate groups who members could be counted on the vote as a block
craft unions
union where all members have the same skill
industrial union
union to which all workers in a single industry belong
Congress of Industrial Organizations
CIO; federation of unions that organized industrial (mass production) workers; rival to the AFL
Alfred M. Landon
Republican candidate 1936; denounced FDR for endangering American free enterprise; attacked many New Deal programs
a proposal by FDR who was frustrated by the Supreme Court's decisions to strike down many New Deal program as unconstitutional - FDR intended to reorganize the Supreme Court by nominating six new justices
mild downturn in business cycle
Black Cabinet
FDR appointed more African Americans to government posts than any President before him; they influenced him as an unoffical "black cabinet"
ethnic groups
groups of people who share the same culture, religion, and customs
John Steinbeck
American author who wrote GRAPES OF WRATH; about a family who left their Oklahoma home in the Dust Bowl and headed to the migrant labor camps of California
Margaret Mitchell
author of GONE WITH THE WIND; escapist literature of the antebellum South during and after the Civil War
films with sound; as opposed to "silent films"
soap operas
daytime radio programs where characters suffered through daily crises
Federal Arts Projects
New Deal program that sponsored posters, murals and paintings; primary goals was to employ out-of-work artists and to provide art for non-federal govt buildings