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33 Cards in this Set

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Edward Bellamy
wrote 1887 novel LOOKING BACKWARD; made socialism seem an attractive alternative to the existing industrial society
Eugene V. Debs
popular labor leader; jailed during Pullman Strike; organized the American Socialist Party; declared workers could gain control of the govt and use it to change the free enterprise system
American Socialist Party
organized by Eugene Debs; believed that in a democracy workers could gain control of the govt and use it to change the free enterprise system
moderate reformers who believed that the only way to save the capitalist system was to improve it
Progressive Party
a former political party in the United States; founded by Theodore Roosevelt during the presidential campaign of 1912; its emblem was a picture of a bull moose
Social Gospel
progressives among Catholic priests, Jewish rabbis & ministers preached that religious organizations should work to improve society as well as meet the spiritual needs of their congregations
William Booth
founder of the Salvation Army in England; helped provide food, lodgin, and hope for the urban needy
Salvation Army
social services organization founded by William Booth in London 1865; spread to US in 1880; provided food, lodging, and hope for the urban needy
Florence Kelley
was a resident of Jane Addams' Hull House in Chicago; left to found the National Consumers League; acts on behalf of workers and consumers; claims credit for helping pass the Fair Labor Standards Act which guaranteed a minimum wage
Jane Addams
co-founded Hull House in Chicago; one of the first settlement houses in the U.S.
Hull House
one of the first settlement houses in the U.S.; a type of welfare house for the neighborhood poor and a center for social reform; facilities included night school for adults, public kitchen, art gallery, coffee house, girls' club, music school, etc.
muckrakers (examples)
journalist who searches for and exposes scandals and abuses occurring in business and politics;
John Spargo's THE BITTER CRY OF THE CHILDREN (abuses of child labor)
Frank Norris's THE OCTOPUS (railroads dominated wheat farmers)
Ray Baker's FOLLOWING THE COLOR LINE (discrimination against African Americans in both North & South)
commission plan
five commmissioners chosen in a nonpartisan election
city-manager plan
progressive form of city govt - an elected city council hires a professional manager to run city government
Robert M. La Follette
Republican & Progressive politician who was successful in advancing political reform that took the control from the big bosses and their political machines AND big businesses.
Wisconsin Idea
series of political reforms that included:
primary elections
initiative, referendum, recall
workers' compensation
direct election of senators
progressive taxation
direct primary
a preliminary election where voters choose candidates for the general election
allows a group of citizens to introduce legislation and requires the leislature to vote on it
allows voters to remove an elected official from office by holding a special election
Charles Evans Hughes
Supreme Court judge; investigated insurance industry; uncovered bribes; helped pass laws to regulate insurance companies & protect interest of policy holders
Pure Food & Drug Act 1906
provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbade manufacture sale or transport of adulterated food products or poisonous patent medicines.
Meat Inspection Act
authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections & condemn any unfit for human consumption; resulted from outcry over Upton Sinclair's THE JUNGLE
Muller v Oregon 1908
landmark Supreme Court decision - first time the Court applied common sense to law - Court would become an instrument of social reform; supported Oregon law that limited women's workdays to 10-hour day;
Sixteenth Amendment
authorized a federal income tax
Women's Christian Temperance Union;
its purpose was to combat the influence of alcohol on families and society
Eighteenth Amendment
1919; established Prohibition; prohibited the manufacture, sale and transport of liquor
Progressive Supreme Court Justices
Oliver Wendell Holmes 1902;
Charles Evans Hughes 1910;
Louis D. Brandeis 1916
Immigration Restriction League - literacy test
founded 1894; urged that immigrants be required to demonstrate literacy in some language;
In theory a literacy test would not discriminate against the people of any particular race, creed, or color. But in reality it would keep out many of the "new" immigrants from southern and eastern Europe —whom league members considered inferior beings, likely to become criminals or public charges if admitted.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court decision; approved legal racial segregation in public facilities; helped cement the legal foundation for the doctrine of "separate but equal," which permitted separation of the races, but only as long as facilities for both races were of equal quality
Booker T. Washington
African American leader; founded Alabama's Tuskegee Institute in 1881 to train blacks in thirty trades; argued that equality would be achieved not through campaigns for reform but when African Americans gained the education and skills to become valuable members of the community
W.E.B. Dubois
civil rights leader & scholar; 1909 founded the NAACP; argued that suffrage was the way to end white supremacy, stop lynchings and gain better schools; urged African Americans to fight openly against injustice and discrimination
Niagara Falls Convention
1905; called for full civil liberties, an end to racial discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood; renounced Booker T. Washington's accomodation policies
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1909; founded by 13 activists including W.E.B. DuBois and 12 Jewish Americans; one of the oldest civil rights organizations in the USA; leader of the fight for civil rights