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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

-refers to the long term deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts which are intended to transmit, evoke or acquire knowledge, attitude, values, skills, sensibilities and any other learning that result from such a process whether intended or unintended.


-deals with short term activities which are aimed at providing individuals with specific knowledge, skills or abilities that can be applied immediately towards the improvement of their work performances -the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance



I. Training Needs Analysis (TNA)

II. Establishing Goals and Objectives III. Choosing the Best Training Method

IV. Motivating Employees to Attend Training

V. Delivering the Training Program

VI. Ensuring Transfer of Training

VII. Evaluation of Training Result

-the first step in developing an employee training system. The purpose of TNA is to determine the types of training, if any, that are needed in an organization as well as extent to which training is a practical means of achieving an organizations goals.

Training Needs Analysis (TNA)





-the process of determining the organizational factors that will either facilitate or inhibit training effectiveness.

Organizational Analysis

-the process of identifying the tasks performed by each employee, the conditions under which these tasks are performed and the competencies (knowledge, skills, abilities) needed to perform the job under identified conditions.

Task Analysis

-the process of identifying the employees who need training and determining the areas in which each individual employee needs to be trained. It is based on the recognition that not every employee needs further training for every task performed.

Person Analysis

person analysis uses:

1. Performance Appraisal Score

2. Surveys

3. Interviews

4. Skill test

5. Knowledge test

6. Critical Incidents

- a rating representing some aspect of an employee’s work performance

Performance Appraisal Score

- questionnaires asking employees about the areas in which they feel they need training


- usually done with a selected number of employees. It can yield more in-depth answers to questions about training needs as it reveals employee feelings and attitude more clearly


- a test that measures an employee’s level of some job related skill.

Skill Test

- A test that measures the level of an employee’s knowledge about a job-related topic.

Knowledge Test

– a relatively easy to use method for determining training needs. Critical incidents are sorted into dimensions and separated into examples of good and poor performance. Dimensions with most number of poor performance example is then the area that calls for a training.

Critical Incidents

Examples Training Methods

1. Classroom Setting

2. Distance Learning

3. On-the-job Learning

Classroom Setting


Case Study


Role Play Behavior Modelling


Distance Learning

Printed materials


Interactive video







Case Study

Simulation Role Play Behavior Modelling


- good training source if the goal is for employees to obtain knowledge, but unless they are accompanied by such techniques as simulations and role-plays, they are not usually effective at teaching skills.


- a training technique in which employees, usually in a group are presented with a real or hypothetical workplace problem and are asked to propose the best solution.

Case Study

- a case study that is based on real situation rather than a hypothetical one.

Living Case

- An exercise designed to place an applicant in a situation that is similar to the one that will be encountered on the job.


- a training technique in which employees act out simulated roles.

Role play

- a training technique in which employees observe correct behavior, practice that behavior and then receive feedback about their performance.

Behavior modeling

Conducting Training through Distance Learning

1. Asynchronous Technologies

– distance learning programs in which employees can complete the training in their own pace and at the time of their choosing

1. Asynchronous Technologies

2. Synchronous Technologies

- a training technique in which an employee is presented with a videotaped situation and is asked to respond to the situation and then receives feedback based on the response

Interactive Video

- a training method in which employees learn information at their own pace.

Programmed Instruction

– distance learning programs that require employees to complete the training at the same time and at the same pace although they may be in different physical locations

Synchronous Technologies

- short for “web seminar”, an interactive training method in which training is transmitted over the internet


– a non-interactive training method in which training is transmitted over the internet


Conducting On-the-job Training

1. Modeling

2. Job Rotation

3. Cross-Training

- learning through watching and imitating the behavior of others


- a system in which employees are given the opportunity to perform several different jobs in an organization

Job Rotation

- teaching employees how to perform tasks traditionally performed by other employees


- a training program usually found in the craft and building trades, in which employees combine formal coursework and formal on-the-job training

Apprentice training

Learning through Coaching

1. Coaching


- a method of training in which new employee receives on-the-job guidance from an experienced employee.


- a formal method of coaching in which employees spend a period of time in the training department learning training techniques and training employees

Pass-through programs

- a form of coaching wherein there is a mentor who looks out for a new employee.


- working alongside a colleague to observe and learn the skills

“Sitting next to Nellie

Training typically takes one of two forms:

1. experienced employees working with new employees

2. professional coaches who work with all employees.

- the extent to which behavior learned in training will be performed on the job.

Transfer of training

- Practicing a task even after it has been mastered in order to retain learning


- a measure of job performance or knowledge taken before the implementation of a training program.


- a measure of job performance or knowledge taken after a training program has been completed.


six levels at which training effectiveness can be measured:

1.Content Validity

2. Employee Reaction

3. Employee Learning

4. Application of Training

5. Business Impact

6. Return of Investment

– comparing training content with the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a job.

Content Validity

– a method of evaluating training in which employees are asked their opinions of a training program

Employee Reactions

– evaluating the effectiveness of the training program by measuring how much employees learned from it

Employee Learning

– determining the extent to which employees apply the material taught in a training program.

Application of Training

- a method of evaluating the effectiveness of training by determining whether the goals of the training were met

Business Impact

- the amount of money the organization makes after subtracting the cost of training or other interventions.

Return of Investment (ROI)

-the forces within a person that cause the arousal, direction, intensity and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary behavior

- from the Latin word “movere” meaning “to move”

-the force that drives an employee to perform well


-behaviors that are not part of an employee’s job but which make the organization a better place to work (e.g. helping others, staying late)

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)

-the extent to which a person views him or herself as a valuable or worthy individual

Self- Esteem

- states that employees will be motivated to perform at levels consistent with their levels of self-esteem.

Korman’s Consistency Theory

- the positive or negative way in which a person view him/herself as a whole

Chronic Self-esteem

- the positive or negative way in which a person views him/herself in a particular situation

Situational Self-esteem

- the positive or negative way in which a person views him/herself based on the expectations of others.

Socially influenced Self-esteem

- the idea that people behave in ways consistent with their self-image

Self-fulfilling Prophecy

- when high self-expectations result in higher levels of performance

Galatea Effect

- the idea that if people believe that something is true, they will act in a manner consistent with that belief

Pygmalion Effect

- when a negative expectation of an individual cause a decrease in that individual performance

Golem effect

– work motivation in the absence of such external factors as pay, promotion and coworkers

Intrinsic Motivation

– work motivation that arises from such nonpersonal factors as pay, coworkers and opportunities for advancement

Extrinsic Motivation

- a measure of individual’s orientation toward intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation

Work Preference Inventory (WPI)

-focus on internal drives or factors internal to the individual that direct behavior.


- Suggests that individual needs exist in a hierarchy, which individuals strive to achieve.

Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


1. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

2. Clayton Paul Alderfer’s ERG Theory

3. Frederick Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory

4. David McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory

- Safe working conditions, adequate pay, job security

Lower-order needs

Hierarchy of Work Motivation

1. Self-Actualization (personal growth, realization of potential)

2. Esteem Needs (titles, status, symbols, promotions)

3. Social/Love/ Belongingness Needs (formal/informal groups

4. Security/ Safety Needs (retirement plans, health insurance, severance pay)

5. Basic Needs (pay)

- An extension of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Clayton Paul Alderfer’s ERG Theory

3 categories (instead of 5): Clayton Paul Alderfer’s ERG Theory


Relatedness and


- includes all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love and affection). This corresponds closely to Maslow's first two levels.

Existence Needs

- encompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like family, friends, co-workers and employers. This also means to be recognized and feel secure as part of a group or family. Corresponds to Maslow's third and fourth levels.

Relatedness Needs

- internal esteem and self-actualization; these impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to progress toward one's ideal self). Maslow's fourth and fifth levels. This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete meaningful tasks.

Growth Needs

- Related to Maslow’s but specific to how individuals are motivated in the workplace

- Meeting the lower level needs (hygiene factors) would not motivate them to exert effort, but would prevent them from being dissatisfied

Frederick Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory

2 basic sets of needs: Frederick Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory

Hygiene needs

Motivator needs

Hygiene Factors

- Salaries, wages, other benefits

- Company policy & administration

- Good interpersonal relationships

- Quality of supervision

- Job security

- Working conditions

- Work-life balance

Motivator Factors

- Sense of personal achievement

- Status

- Recognition

- Challenging/stimulating work

- Responsibility

- Opportunity for advancement

- Promotion

- Growth

- is a simple technique for moving individuals from hygiene-seeking to motivation seeking levels that leads to self-motivation and productivity

Job Enrichment

Methods of Job Enrichment:

- Direct feedback (timely & direct performance evaluation)

- New learning (trainings)

- Uniqueness (of the job)

- Control (accountability)

-proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences.

David McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory

three needs: David McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory

1. Achievement motivation (n-ach)

2. Authority/power motivation (n-pow)

3. Affiliation motivation (n-affil)

- is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback about achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment.

Achievement motivation (n-ach)

- is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige

Authority/power motivation (n-pow)

- is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. They need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players.

Affiliation motivation (n-affil)

People with different needs are motivated differently:

High need for achievement - High achievers should be given challenging projects with reachable goals. They should be provided frequent feedback. While money is not an important motivator in itself. Rather, it is an effective form of feedback.

- Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment. High need for power - Management should provide power seekers the opportunity to manage others.

High need for affiliation