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457 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Study of structures and how they relate to other structures
goes beyond dissecting
macro/microscopic analysis
Study of the function of the body's parts
all 11 organ systems work in unison to sustain human body, state referred to as homeostasis
function refers to biochemical reactions occuring inside cells in the human body
Study of cells under a microscope
Study of tissues
Frontal plane
Sagittal plane(median plane)
Z plane
Transverse/cross-sectional plane
horizontal cut
Proximal vs distal
Higher/ lower
the elbow is proximal to the wrist
the knee is distal to the thighs
4 limbs, trunk and head
body erect
palms face forward
feet slightly apart
thumbs point away from body
Body cavity(trunk)
Ventral Body cavity
Dorsal body cavity
Ventral body cavity
thoracic body cavity
abdomino-pelvic cavity
two cavities separated by diaphragm
separates ventral body cavity between superior thoracic cavity and inferior abdominal pelvic cavity
Thoracic body cavity
lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus
Abdomino-pelvic cavity
most of the digestive, urinary and reproductive organs
Serous membranes
separate organs from one another
surround organs in the ventral body cavity
responsible for compartmentalization inside the ventral body cavity
Pericardial sac
serous membrane which surrounds the heart in the thoracic cavity
Pleural sac
Serous membrane which surrounds the lungs
Peritoneal sac
Serous membranes which surrounds the organs in the abdominal-pelvic cavity
isolate each organ to prevent interference from neighboring organs
prevent spread of infection from one organ to the other
to hold organs in their right anatomical position
to protect against trauma(stress, shock)
can lead to disappearance of membrane between ureter and kidneys and can cause the ureters to wrap around the kidneys.
Dorsal Body cavity
two subcavities
superior cranial cavity(brain), inferior vertebral(spinal cord) cavity
Central nervous system(CNS)
brain+ spinal cord
located in the dorsal body cavity
membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord
Two different types of meninges
disease that occurs if pathogen enters brain
can be fatal
9 v. 4 abdomino-pelvic divisions
right/left upper quadrants
right/left lower quadrants
right hypochondriac region, epigastric region, left hypochondriac region
right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region
right iliac region, hypogastric region, left iliac region
Levels of structural organization
Chemical>cell>tissue>organ>organ systems>organismal
Chemical level
Atoms combine to form molecules
Cellular level
Cells made up of molecules
smallest structures in which biochemical reactions occur
Cells are the structural units of organism
Tissue level
tissues consist of similar cells placed together to form sheet like structures with specific functions.
4 types of tissue(muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective)
Most cells aggregate to from tissues(except spematozoa and erythrocytes)
Organ level
composed of 2 or more types of tissues which arrange into structures to perform a function
Organ systems
consist of at least two different organs that work together closely/ in a complementary way to bring about a desired effect in the human body
Human body made up of many organ systems(11 organ systems)
all work in unison to sustain the organism> results in homeostasis
Symptoms vs. signs
symptoms are described, internal(e.g loss of appetite)
signs are visible, external
Homeostatic imbalances
lead to diseases
Homeostasis(organ systems)
Endocrine and nervous system responsible for homeostasis
study of cells
study of tissues
functions of a part of the body depends on the structure of the part
(makeup of the part in terms of cell types and tissue types)
Structure defines function
cellular/ tissue make-up of an organ dictates its function
11 organs systems
relatively constant internal environment maintained by the 11 organ systems even though the external environment is changing
Homeostatic imbalance
happens when at least 1 organ is not functioning properly.
if not corrected by the internal regulating systems(endocrine, nervous) it leads to disease
Disease caused by homeostatic imbalance
Atom structure
2 subatomic nucleus of 2 subatomic particles
Biochemical reactions(basis)
For atoms to achieve stability by having a complete outer-most shell(valence shell)
Atom subatomic particles
protons(positively charged), neutrons(not charged), electrons(negatively charged)
number of protons equals the number of electons
Atomic number
refers specifically to the number of protons in the atom
Electron arrangement
first shell(closest to nucleus accommodates two electrons
2nd shell 8 electrons
3rd can accommodate up to 18 electrons but because of octet rule
the atom achieves stability with 8 electrons
Unreactive v. reactive atoms
Reactive atoms have valence/outermost shells that are not complete
Accept electrons(form chemical bonds)
to achieve stability
Chemical bonds
3 types of chemical bonds
Covalent bonds
atoms share electrons to achieve stability
Types of compounds
inorganic(no carbon chain) vs. organic compounds(carbon chains, non-polar covalent bond)
Polar covalent compound
Universal solvent> all biochemical reactions occurring in the cells require water to produce water
hydration or dehydration reactions
slightly warmer than body temperature
water in blood absorbs heat to maintain core value temperature
High heat of vaporization
increase in the body temperature results in reflex sweating
vaporization of water from the surface of the skin requires increase in temperature
used for vaporization> decrease in body temperature(cooling)
H+ or proton donor
hydrogen atomic#1 if electron donated becomes H+(proton)
increase in H+ causes decrease in pH, increase in acidity
= -log10[H+]
proton acceptors
Blood pH
strictlty maintained between 7.35-7.45
critical for the optimal function of enzymes
blood pH under 7.4
blood pH above 7.4
Chemicals that prevent changes in blood pH
two components(H+ acceptor, H+ donor)
Buffer system (situational)
drop in blood pH>binds H+ to raise blood pH back into normal range
rise in blood pH>releases H+ to decrease blood pH back into normal
ionic compounds(cation+anion)
dissociates in water into cations and anions
NaCl>Na+ + Cl-
cations and anions
ions which mediate many physiological processes
Ca2+> mediates muscle contraction
Na+, K+ action potentials> electrical signals produced by neurons for communication
Organic compounds
4 organic compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins,
hydrated carbon
(CH2O)n n indicates the number of carbons in the chain
3 types of carbohydrates
monosaccharides, disaccharide, polysaccharides
building blocks of the other two types of carbohydrates
n=5 pentose
n=6 hexose
Pentose sugars I
2 types of pentose
deoxyribose and ribose
found in nucleic acids
DNA(deoxyribose) and RNA(ribose)
Pentose sugars II
form part of the nucleic acids and the two types of nucleic acids are named for the type of pentose sugar present.
Nucleic acids
deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) and ribonucleic acid(RNA)
Hexose sugars
3 types of hexose sugars
glucose, galactose, fructose
Second type of carbohydrates
3 types
maltose, sucrose, lactose
all involve glucose
storage forms of glucose in plant cells and in animal cells
in plants: STARCH
in animals: GLYCOGEN
Carbohydrates(functions in body)
1-2% of cell mass
cells metabolize glucose via glycolysis to produce energy
pentose sugars which form part of the backbone of the nucleic acid
glucose attached to lipids>glycolipids
glucose attached to proteins>glycoproteins
Glycolipids and glycoproteins
on the surface of cells in the plasma membrane
act as signal molecules or "molecule markers"
glycolipids:carbohydrates(glycogen) attached to the phospholipids
glycoproteins:carbohydrates(glycogen) attached to integral proteins.
glycolipids and glycoproteins rich area on the surface of the plasma membrane
Pattern of arrangement of glucose is unique for each cell type.
Changes in pattern indicative of cell turning cancerous
> allows pre-cancerous cells to evade immune cells because they can't recognize and attack these cells
if there is a change in this area, signal given to immune system
makes the surface of the cell fuzzy and sticky
acts as a storage form of energy
body can storee up to 500-600 g of glycogen
excess glucose beyond glycogenesis(glucose>glycogen process) turned into fat for storage
process by which glucose is converted to fat
4 types of lipids
neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids
neutral fats I
unsaturated(liquid at room temperature) vs. saturated(solid at room temperature)
neutral fats II
Protein combination
since lipids are insoluble in water, in an aqueous environment(as in the body). Lipids transported as lipoproteins> lipids surrounded by proteins
3 types(vlDLs)
high amount of lipids>protein
major lipid in vlDL>triglycerides
major lipid in the human diet
transported by vlDLs
major lipid in vlDls
most concentrated form of stored energy
1 gram of glycogen>glucose>4kcal
1 gram of glyceride>glucose>9kcal
transport triglycerides to the adipose cells in adipose tissue for storage
No limit to fat storage in adipose cells to the body
Adipose tissue
provides protection to organs in body
protection against trauma
Heart, eyes..> surrounded by fat
holds organs in their right anatomical portion
Adipose capsule
holds/surrounds each kidney to hold the kidney in its right anatomical position
excessive weight loss whereby the adipose capsule around the kidney is depleted, the kidneys drop from their anatomical positions
ureter coming out of kidneys twist(kink) to prevent drainage of urine from kidneys>kidneys destroyed(renal failure)
Low density lipoprotein(LDLs)
high amount of lipids>protein
major lipid in LDL
inserts in lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane>stabilize the membrane>"cholesterol maintains the integrity of the plasma membrane"
required for the synthesis of all steroid hormones
transport cholesterol to the plasma membrane to the steroidogenic cells(cells that produce steroid hormones in the body)
Human body(cholesterol)
human synthesize 85% of the cholesterol needed
supplement 15% from the diet
ingestion of cholesterol above 15% will result in increase in LDL.
Increase in LDL
results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the internal surface of the blood vessels
Atherosclerotic plaques
decrease lumen of blood vessels
decrease blood flow through blood vessels(artery)
increase in blood pressure
sustained blood pressure increase
if untreated/poorly managed, results in the heart pumping harder against the resistance to blood flow in the blood vessels
Heart increases in size to compensate for the increase in resistance
if heart increases to a point where its structural units(sarcomeres) are stretched, the heart becomes useless as a pump
hear can no longer pump blood
"a bigger heart is not necessarily a better pump"
Cardiovascular disease
if atherosclerotic plaque disloges from the internal surface of blood vessel, the plaque becomes free-floating and referred to as an embolus
referred to as a bullet
lodges in the smaller blood vessel such as a coronary or cerebral veseel blocking blood supply to tissue beyond blockade>tissue eventually die"necrosis">dead tissue in organism
in a coronary vessel>myocardial infarction(MI), heart attack
in a cerebral vessel > ischemia stroke="brain attack"
Bad cholesterol
increase in LDL causes hypertension, cardiomegala(enlarged heart)
, medical condition(heart too big)
"bigger heart is not necessarily a better pump"
elevated LDL causes myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke
High-density lipoproteins(HDL)
high amount proteins> lipid
major lipid in HDL is also cholesterol
Does not sit in blood stream
transports cholesterol to the liver for breakdown and elimination from the body
Hence HDL "good cholesterol"
polar/hydrophilic head
non-polar hydrophobic tail
Polar head
refers to phosphorus containing group in the phospholipids
can interact with water
Non-polar tail
2 free fatty acids chain> hydrophobic
used in the formation or assembly of the plasma membrane
form micelles, transport structures to the aqueous environment in the small intestine
transport fatty elements in the small intestine simple columnar cell lining the small intestine
once there, fatty elements diffuse into the simple columnar cells.
4th type of lipids
derived indirectly from phospholipids
prostaglandins and leukotrienes
prevents formation of prostaglandins (e.g thromboxane A2) by inhibiting cyclooxygenase
prevents blood clots formation
recommended when an individual has thrombo-embolic disease
Thromboxane A2
prostanglandins required for hemostasis(stoppage or cessation of bleeding due to a broken blood vessel by the formation of blood clots).
fibrous vs. globular proteins
Fibrous proteins
usually alpha helices or beta-pleated sheets
insoluble in water, extended/strand-like
structural proteins: provide mechanical support and tensile strength as main building material in the body
Globular proteins
compact/ball-likesoluble in water, sensitive to pH/temp. changes
functional proteins: mediate all biochemical reactions occurring in the body
achieve tertiary structure
3rd type of organic compounds
formed by building block called amino acids
4 structural levels:primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Primary structure
indicates the type and the position of the amino acids
sequence of amino acids important for the folding and modification of protein
dictates the structural level attained by the protein and hence it indirectly dictates the function of the protein
Structure defines function
Secondary structural level of protein
2 types
alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets
primary structure is folded and held together by hydrogen bonds to form the two secondary structures
some proteins only achieve this structural level(e.g collagen)
Third structural level:tertiary
some proteins attain the tertiary structure
secondary structures are folded to from compact structures with depth, width, length resulting in the 3-dimensional structure of the protein
3D structure unravel destroying the active sites of the protein(e.g globular proteins sensitive to pH and temp.)
Quaternary structure
Only a few proteins in the human cell attain the quaternary structure modification(e.g hemoglobin)
Secondary structural level:cellular
cells are the structural units of cell organisms hence cells are the functional units of cell organisms.
biochemical reactions occur within cells to sustain organisms.
Structure defines function
The type of biochemical reactions occuring in the cell depends on the subcellular structures of cell at cellular level
continuity of species occurs at the cellular level
in the human at time of fertilization
sperm(male sex cell), ovum(female sex cell)
Human body(SDF)
200 types of cells based on structure
structure of each cell dictates its function
3 regions: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
Plasma membrane I
forms the outer boundary of the cell and is located in between two fluid compartments>extracellular(ECL) and intracellular(ICL) fluids
Extracellular fluid
blood plasma(3L) +interstitial fluid(12L)
Intestitial fluid is extra fluid that surrounds cells in the tisue
Intracellular fluid
Plasma membrane II (structure)
composed of two rows/parallel sheets of phospholipids
polar heads interact with interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid
non-polar tails in core of the plasma membrane/between way from the aqueous environment
Membrane proteins
present on the plasma membrane
peripheral vs. integral protein
Peripheral proteins
attached to integral proteins or the phospholipids on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane
Integral proteins
span the plasma membrane exposed on one surface or both surfaces of the plasma membrane
facilitated diffusion
if one both surfaces called transmembrane proteins
Membrane junctios
tight junction, desmosome, gap junction
Tight junction
fusion of integral proteins in plasma memmbrane of adjacent cells forming an impermeable junction
linker proteins extending from plaques on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane of adjacent cells interdigitate to hold cell together and prevent their separation
anchoring junction
Gap junction
formed by hollow cylinder called connexons
allows for rapid transfer of ion between cells
known as communicating junction
Membrane transport
Active vs. passive processes
Passive processes
Filtration & diffusion
Diffusion(3 types)
facilitated diffusion(plateau saturation can occur)
simple diffusion
Active processes
active transport & vesicular transport
Active transport
movement of solute(ions) against a concentration gradient
need energy in the form of ATP
Vesicular transport
movement of bulky substances enclosed in vesicles(vesicles have a similar structure to the plasma membrane without glycocalyx)
Exocytosis vs. Endocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis
movement of solute down concentration gradient
solutes moved from area of higher solute concentration to area to low solute concentration
Simple diffusion
lipid soluble solutes(hydrophobic solutes) cross the plasma membrane down their concentration gradient
e.g O2 carried by blood in blood vessels
Facilitated diffusion
substances that are polar, hydrophylic or charged cannot traverse the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane
substances are facilitated by transmembrane proteins to cross plasma membrane
exhibits specificity
Transmembrane proteins
also transport or carrier proteins
bind to a specific substance
substances that use facilitated diffusion(glucose, amino acid, H2O(polar covalent)
carrier protein(transmembrane) for H2)
Facilitated diffusion(saturation)
when all the carrier proteins are engaged in transporting the substance, saturation is observed
y-axis=amount transported
movement of water from area of low solute concentration to area of high solute concentration
movement of water from region of higher H20 concentration to region of lower H20 concentration
Plasma membrane
selective barrier
movement of bulky substances from the interior of cell to the exterior.
e.g hormones, neurotransmitters released from cell via exocytosis
substance to be released enclosed in the vesicle
vesicle moves to plasma membrane and fuses with it
area of the plasma membrane ruptures to release the substances to the exterior of the cell
solid particles(clumps of bacteria, cell debris)
enclosed in vesicles made by the involution of the plasma membrane
vesicle detaches into the cell's cytoplasm
vesicle now called phagosome
vesicle in the plasma membrane which coalesces with the lysozomes
cytoplasmic organelle
contains powerful digestive enzymes called lysozymes
digest the content of phagosome
content destroyed
special cells that undergo phagocytosis
have an elevated number of lysozomes
transport of bulk fluid
movement of solution enclose in a pinocytic vesicle into the cell
vesicle coalesces with lysozome to digest the vesicle and release the solution
all cells in the body use pinocytosis
Receptor mediated-endocytosis
LDL taken into the steroidogenic cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis
LDL binds to LDL receptors(integral proteins) on the surface of the plasma membrane of the steroidogenic cells.
LDL-LDL receptor involutes into the cell enclosed in a clathrin-coated vesicle called coated pit
exhibits specificity
inside cell vesicle lose clathrin and coalesce with lysoszome
vesicle digested>content released
Clathrin coat
bristle-like structure
movement of solution from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure down a pressure concentration gradient
Vesicular transport(special types)
trancytosis, vesicular trafficking
subtances enter cell via endocytosis and released on the opposite side of the cell via exocytosis
e,g substance from the blood into endothelial cells
Vesicular trafficking
intracellular movement of substance
e.g movement of newly synthesized protein from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus for processing
Resting membrane potential(RMP)
between -50 mV to -100mV
established by the partial/selective nature of the plasma membrane
Na+/K+ pump(active transport)
reinforces/maintains separation of charges at the plasma membrane
Inclusion, cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles
only 7 cells in the body such as skeletal muscle fibers, hepatocytes(liver cells), cells of the stratum basale of the epidermis will contain inclusions
Cytoplasmic organelles
Mitochondria, ribosomes
when the energy demand of the cell increases, the number of mitochondria increases
number of mitochondria reflects the energy demands of the cell
metabollicaly acitve cells have more mitochondria
site for aerobic catabolism of nutrients to yield more ATP.
Hence referred to as power house or power plants
Mitochondria(glucose processing)
Aerobic respiration(36ATP)
anaerobic catabolism (2ATP)
non-membrane cytoplasmic organelles
2 types: free vs. bound
number fluctuates between two types
cell involved in protein synthesis will therefore have higher ribosomes
Free ribosomes
synthesize the soluble protein which stay inside the cells/ in the cytosol
Bound ribosomes
synthesize proteins which are exported to/destined for the plasma membrane and secreted out of the cell with exception of lysozomes
secretory cells(high number of bound ribosomes, prominent rough ER)
synthesize lysozomes which are vesicles that bud off the surface of the Golgi apparatus
Endoplasmic reticulum(ER)
smooth vs. rough ER
Rough ER
bound ribosomes
associated with the synthesis of phospholipids which are used in the synthesis of the plasma membrane
SInce associated with bound ribosomes>involved in the synthesis of the membrane proteins
hence, referred to as membrane factory
Smooth ER
no bound ribosomes
prominent in cells involve in detoxification such as hepatocytes(liver cells)
kidney cells have prominent smooth ER
cells involved in steroid hormone syntesis(steroidogenic) will also have prominent smooth ER
involved in glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen to form glucose-6-phosphate
glucose-6-phosphate enters into glycolytic pathway for energy production
Skeletal muscle(glycogen)
store glycogen which undergoes glycogenolysis. Hence skeletal muscle fibers called glycolytic fibers willl have prominent smooth ER
Hepatocytes(liver cells)
drug detoxification and glycogenolysis
hence, have prominent smooth ER
glycogenolysis in hepatocytes will also yield glucose-6-phosphate
have unique enzyme that cleaves off phosphate group
Hepatocytes II(glucose)
glucose crosses the lipid bilayer of the hepatocytes via facilitated diffusion into blood to provide glucose to neurons in between meals.
Golgi apparatus
close association with rough ER
Golgi receives proteins synthesized by bound ribosomes and modifies, concentrates and tags proteins for their destination (secreted, plasma membrane, inside the cells)
Hence known as "traffic director"
Tagged proteins
phagocytosis, secretory cells
abundance of lysozomes
prominent Golgi apparatus
membranous cytoplasmic organelles that bud off Golgi apparatus
have lysozyems that are involved in glycogenolysis
Cells that contain a lot of lysozomes
bone cells for the breakdown of calcium phosphate crystals to release ionic calcium to blood
hepatocytes> skeletal muscle fibers called glycolytic fibers
abundant in cells actively involved in catabolism of nutrients where free radicals are produced as by-products of catabolism
Metabolicallly active cells
have high number of mitochondria and high number of peroxisomes.
Bond strenght
weakest hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds,non-polar covalent bonds
Exam 2
control center of cell
controls cell activity occurring inside a cell
Nucleus(3 areas)
Nuclear envelope(membrane)
Nuclear membrane
similar in composition to plasma membrane
but without glycocalyx
has nuclear pores
Nuclear pores
openings in the nuclear membrane
allow for the export of substances from the nucleus into the cytoplasm(e.g mRNA)
allow for the import of substances from cytoplasm to nucleus(e.g. proteins)
Proteins imported(description)
enzymes or proteins that form the subunits of ribosomes
dark, spherical structure in the nucleoplasm
site of/involved in assembly of the ribosomal subunits(small and large)
involved in synthesis or ribosomal RNA(rRNA)
present in cells actively producing protein
rRNA+Proteins imported
form the subunit of the ribosome
space within the nucleus
Small and large ribosomal subunits
exported from nucleus into the cytoplasm through the nuclear pores
fuse in cytoplasm to form the functional ribosome
appears as thread-like beaded structures meandering through the nucleoplasm
composed of structural units called nucleosomes
consists of 8 histone proteins with a piece of the thread like-DNA wrapped around them
type of nucleic acids
Nucleic acid
fourth type of organic compound in the body
two types based on pentose sugar
Two types
deoxyribonucleic acid
contains the pentose sugar deoxyribose
nitrogen- containing A, T, C, G
In human cells, double helical structure
confined to nucleus
contains ribose sugar
A,U, C, G
always single stranded
exists both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Chromatin(2 forms in human cell)
Euchromatin (Active)
Heterochromatin (Inactive)
Cell life cycle
series of events involving growth of the cell and subsquent division of the cell
consists of two "sequential" phases
Two sequential phases
First phase: Interphase
Second phase: Cell chromosome division
first phase
G1, S, G2
3 sequence subphases
G1 phase
protein synthesis occurs to cause cell growth
due to increase in the size of the cell is called hypertrophy
During protein synthesis the chromatin will be in the active form euchromatin
Centriole replication begins
S subphase
protein synthesis resulting in growth of the cell occurs
DNA replicates itself to form two identical DNA molecules
DNA replication
DNA uncoils and the 2 polynucleotides chains are separated
each polynucleotide chain acts as a template for the synthesis of a new polynucleotide chain.
Semi-conservative replication
the two DNA molecules synthesized via DNA replication each contain an old strand and a newly synthesized strand
Cell cycle(G2 phase)
protein synthesis continues
functional proteins required for the initiation/maintenance of mitosis are produced
Replication of centrioles completed
Functional proteins required for cell division
maturation promoting factor
cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)
Cell division(two types)
division of the cytoplasm around each nucleus
formation of two daughter cells
nuclear division
if not followed by cytokinesis results in a multinucleated cell
Multinucleate cell
can be formed by diffusion of several cells to form one large cell with several nuclei
Cell growth(during interphase)
hypertrophy> increase in cell size
After mitosis/cytokinesis
cell number increases
hyperplasia> increase in cell number
Prevention of hyperplasia
prevent DNA replication
Whole proteins
excessive proliferation of cells(hyperplasia)
2 main types
benign vs. malignant
located tumors
do not undergo metastasis
cancer cells get into bloodstream and lymph
cancer cells carried to other tissues/organs
cancer cells seed and grow in these tissues/organs
Effective cancer chemotherapeutic drugs
based on/off the cell cycle
3 methods
First method
inhibit/prevent DNA replication in the S phase of interphase
only cells with replicated DNA are capable of mitosis
Second method
inhibition of the production of the functional protein in G2 phase
inhibition of the function in the Go proteins
>functional proteins produced in the G2 phase for the inhibition/maintenance of cell division
Third method
disruption of the spindle fibers(mitotic spindles)
>anaphase is aborted
Cell cycle
Cell division
protein synthesis
regulated by DNA in the nucleus of the cell
Protein synthesis
chromatin is in the euchromatin(active, extended form)
Free-messenger RNA(synthesis)
Made from transcription of gene(area or part of the DNA)
Has introns and extrons
edited and spliced
spliced out/removed
base sequences that are non-sensical(do not code for amino acids)
made of exons
amino-acid coding sequence
3 base sequence on DNA
3 base sequence in mRNA
3 base sequence in tRNA
amino acid, anti-codon
since there are 20 amino acids>there are 20 types of tRNA
several tRNAs might be attached to the same amino acid due to redundancy in genetic code
Significance of redundancy in genetic code
codons in messenger RNA that specify the anti-codons on tRNA
> specify the amino acids in the proteins
take care of mistakes that may occur during transcription of the DNA into pre-mRNA
accomodate mistakes during the editing/splicing of pre-mRNA
3 base sequence in DNA transcribed into codons
3 base sequence in mRNA
by the anti-codon with attached amino-acid
3 base sequence on the tRNA complementary to the codons
codons are complementary to the triplets
>hence, anti-codon will the same as triplet(T becomes U)
4 primary types of tissue
Epithelial tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Connective tissue
Epithelial tissue(2 types)
Glandular epithelium
Membranous epithelium
Membranous epithelium
simple vs. stratified
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
pseudostratified epithelium(simple)
transitional epithelium(stratified)
SImple squamous epithelium
in the kidney glomeruli(part of filtration membrane)
in the lungs(part of respiratory membrane)
lining structures(heart, blood vessel, lymphatic vessels) in circulatory system(endothelium)
forms part of the serous membrane(mesothelium); lining of ventral body cavity
allows passage of materials via diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important
secretes lubricating substances in serosae
Kidney tubules
tube-like structures that process urine
Circulatory system
cardiovascular system
lymphatic system
Simple cuboidal epithelium
form part of kidney tubules, have microvili on their apical surface
outer covering of ovum called germinal epithelium
secretion, reabsorption and protection
Simple columnar epithelium
ciliated vs. non-ciliated
Ciliated simple columnar epithelium
bronchi, endowed with goblets cell which secrete mucus
lines fallopian(uterine) tubes
tube-like structures leading into the lung
beat to create a unidirectional current that moves the mucus laden with bacteria and debris away from the lungs toward the pharynx
CIlia(fallopian tubes)
beat to create a unidirectional current that moves the ova(eggs) toward the uterine wall
Non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium(1st location)
in digestive tract(GI tract), epithelial cells have microvili to increase surface for absorption of nutrients
involved in secretion
Non-cilitated simple columnar epithelium(2nd location)
lining ducts involved in secretion
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
simple epithelium with false appearance of stratification
ciliated vs. non-ciliated
Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
in conjunction with goblet cells> referred to as "respiratory epithelium"
because it lines most of the structures in the respiratory system such as the trachea
Cilia beat to create an unidirectional current that moves mucus
away from the lungs and into the pharynx(throat)
Respiratory epithelium
also endowed with goblet cells
Mucus secretion
Cilia(pseudostratified epithelium)
beat to create a unidirectional current that moves mucus laden with pathogens and debris away from the lungs and into the pharynx
Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
line the reproductive male ducts(epiddymides, vasa deferentia, ejaculatory duct, urethra)
give protectin to the internal surface of the ducts
Male ducts
carry sperm out of testes
Stratified epithelial tissue
at least two layers of epithelial cells
round for the epithelial cell type in the apical(face) surface
Stratified squamous epithelium
non-keratinized vs. keratinized
Keratinized squamous epithelium
in epidermis of skin
Keratinized epithelial cells
dead cells impregnated with the tough fibrous proteins called keratin to make the epidermis abrasive resistant
coated with glycolipids(released from laminated granules in stratum granulosum)
>make epidermis waterproof
best suited as for its function as an abrasive-resistant water-proof outer protective coat
Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium tissue
epithelial cells are not keratinized/waterproof
form part of the mucous membrane that lines structures in the tracts of body
>any body organ with at least one opening to the exterior
lines entry and exit points of the tracts
Protect but not abrasive resistant as the keratinized form
Stratified cuboidal+stratified columnar epithelium
rare in human body
line ducts from exocrine glands
involved in secretion of products from glands
provides some protection to the inner surface of the ducts
Exocrine glands
secrete products called secretions
Transitional epithelium
in the urine-transporting ureter
when ureter and bladder are empty> 6 layers of cell with apical cell appearing rounded/cuboidal
As urine enters these structures, the transitional eputhelium undergoes a transition from 6 to 3 layers
>rounded cells become flat squamous like cells
> capacity of structures is increased
issue of the kidneys
transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder where urine is stored
Glandular epithelia
glands composed of epithelial cells ad they secrete products called secretions.
Glandular epithelial
2 types of glands
endocrine vs. exocrine
Endocrine glands
ductless glands
release hormones into the extracellular fluid(ECF= interstitial+blood plasma)
Exocrine glands
2 types
unicellular vs multicellular
Unicellular exocrine glands
no ducts and they release their products into cavities inside the body
Multicellular exocrine glands
equipped with ducts
2 classifications
structural vs. functional
Multicellular exocrine glands II
simple vs. compound
tubular vs. alveolar
5 types
5 types (recognizing them)
simple=unbranched ducts; compound= branched ducts
tubular=tube-like secretory proteins; alveolar=flask-like secretory proteins
e.g tubuloaveolar multicellular exocrine glands:branched ducts
tube-like and flask-like secretory proteins
Connective tissue
2nd primary tissue type in human body
embryonic tissue from which all types of connective tissue are derived indirectly
gives rise to 4 types of cell
4 types of cell
fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, hematopoeitic stem cells
secrete the connective tissue class called connective tissue proper
matured fibroblasts
do not secrete connective tissue proper
based on physiological needs can revert into fibroblasts
secrete the connective tissue class called cartilage
matured chondroblasts=chondrocytes
secrete the CT class called osseous or bone tissue
Mature osteoblasts=osteocytes
Hematopoeitic stem cells
located inside red bone marrow
secrete CT class blood
CT class blood
2 parts
living vs. non-living portion
living portion
cells that secrete that CT class
cells and fibers are dispersed inside the ground substance
non-living portion
extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix
2 parts
ground substance
Ground substance
interstitial fluid
cell adhesion molecules such as lamina(adhere the cells and the fibers to the ground substances)
consist of a protein core with carbohydrate-like substances called glycosaminoglycans(GAGs)
their level determines the consistency of the ground substance;
fluid gel-like= connective tissue proper
semi-solid= cartilage
solid=bone tissue
Finer types in connective tissue
collagen fibers> white fibers
tough fibers> provide tensile strength to connective tissue
elastic fibers> yellow fibers
Elastic fibers(yellow fibers)
stretch-recoil properties of the connective tissue
stretches to accomodate the stress/pressure
when pressure removed, elastic connective tissue maintains its original size/length when it recoils
4 classes of connective tissue
CT proper
bone tissue
CT proper
loose CT
dense CT
Loose CT
Dense CT
dense regular
dense irregular
CT proper loose areolar CT
widely distributed in body
provides support
referred to as the packaging material of the body
houses macrophages that are involved in non-specific immune response
Lamina propria
Aerolar CT underlying the mucous membrane
CT proper loose adipose CT
surround structures in the ventral body cavity
provide protection against trauma
hold structures in right anatomical position
store triglycerides that provide the most concentrated form of stored energy
CT proper loose reticular CT
in lymphoid tissues
form network structure called stroma in lymphoid organs
Dense connective tissue
high level of fibers especially collagen
hence, also known as fibrous connective tissue
Dense regular CT
parallel rows of collagen cell facing in the same direction
collagen fibers are regularly arranged
found in tendons
connect skeletal muscles to bones
poorly vascularized
Dense irregular CT
collagen fibers arranged in irregular fashion
found in epithelial tissue(epidermis)
provides nutrients/O2 to capsules
Dense elastic CT
collagen fibers+elastic fibers
stretch recoil properties
walls of aorta
2nd class of connective tissue(CT)
3 types cartilage
nutrients/O2 diffusion from the perichondrium to the chondrocytes inside shallow concavities
Hyaline cartilage
forms embryonic skeleton
ossification of embryonic skeleton
persists as artificial cartilage, epiphyseal plate and coastal cartilage
artificial cartilage
caps the ends of epiphysis in the long bone
epiphyseal plates
located at the junction of the epiphyses and diaphysis
allow for longitudinal bone growth
coastal cartilage
connect ribs anteriorly to the sternum
blend between dense regular CT and hyaline cartilage
regularly arranged fibers alternating with rows of lacunae containing chondrocytes
3rd class of connective tissue(osseous)
osseous tissue
cell type secretion osseous tissue>osteoblasts
Mature osteoblasts
osteocytes residing in the lacunae in the solid matrix
Ground substance of osseous tissue
solid due to
increase in cialis
increase in bundle of collagen fiber
incorporation of calcium phosphate crystals called hydroxyapatites
Bone tissue
living portion
non-living portion
Living portion
Non-living portion
external cellular matrix
External cellular matrix
organic matrix(osteoid)
inorganic matrix(hydroxyapatites)
4th class of CT
living portion
non-living portion
Living portion
hematopoeitic stem cells
Non-living portion
extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix
fluid matrix called blood plasma
soluble proteins called fibrinogen
when blood clots, forms strands called fibrin strands(visible)
3rd type of primary tissue
nervous tissue
composed of two cell types
neurons(nerve cells)
supporting cells(neuroglia)
cell body also known as the soma=perikargon
contains nucleus + all the cytoplasmic organelles
prominent nucleolus>specialized rough ER called NISSLE body
active in protein synthesis
Cell body
referred to as the biosynthetic region of a neuron
cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the central nervous system
cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
2nd region of neuron
each neuron may have at least 1 dendrite extended from the cell body
appear tapered and received electrical signals coming to neurons
>referred to as receptive region of neuron
3rd region of neuron
only one axon per neuron
uniform diameter
lack cytoplasmic organelles including rough ER
may have side branching called axon collateral
end branches formed by axon branches
end in knob like structures called axon terminals(or boutons, synaptic knobs)
Axon terminals
contain vesicles which contain neurotransmitters which are released when axon generates and transmits action potentials
>Hence axon terminal is a secretory neuron
chemical signals used by neurons to communicate
Action potentials
electrical signals generated by the axon
a traveling action potential is referred to as a nerve impulse
>hence axon is the conducting region of a neuron
Supporting cell(neuroglia)
6 types of supporting cells
4 types in the CNS
2 types in the PNS
4th type of primary tissue(muscle tissue)
Muscle tissue
Muscle tissue(3 types)
skeletal muscle tissue
cardiac muscle tissue
smooth muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle tissue
multinucleate under voluntary control
Cardiac muscle tissue
uninucleate under involuntary control
intercalated disks
Smooth muscle tissue
no striations
involuntary control
next level of structural complexity in the human body
composed of at least two primary tissues/ 4 types of membrane
Organ system
next level of structural complexity
consists of at least two types of organs that perform in a complimentary fashion
Integumentary system
accessory structures
keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue
thickness of the skin differs based on the number of strata in epidermis
thin skin vs. thick skin
Thin skin
the rest of the skin apart from soles and palms
4 strata
Thick skin
soles and palms
5 strata
Strata in epidermis(down to up)
stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum
Stratum basale
deepest stratum abutting the basement membrane
composed of a single layer of cuboidal cells called keratinocytes
undergo mitosis to provide keratinocytes to superficial strata in the epidermis
hence also known as the stratum germinative
also contains melanocytes and Merkel cells
contain vesicles called melanosomes>vesicles containing melanin
released onto the superficial surface of the keratinocytes in the stratum basale
act as a chemical shield to protect the rapidly dividing keratinocytes from harmful effect of UV light, radiation and sunlight
Merkel cells
associate with nerve endings(inside the papillary layer of the dermis) to form touch receptors called Merkel discs
Merkel disks
act as receptors for light touch
Stratum spinosum
immediately superior to stratum basale
contains Langerhans' cells, intermediate filaments called tonofilaments
contains keratinocytes which are connected by desmosomes
Keratinocytes(do not separate) appear spiky when epidermis is subjected to histological chemicals(harsh conditions)
anchoring junctions
Langerhans' cells aka epidermal dendritic cells
specialized macrophages
engulf and destroy pathogens that enter when epidermis is breached.
protective function
chemical protection
Langerhans' cells(in spinosum)
biological/ immunological protection
Stratum spinosum
exhibits high tensile strength
desmosomes and tonofilaments
Stratum granulosum
immediately superficial to the stratum spinosum
keratinocytes etrude all cytoplasmic organelles and fill the cytoplasm with two types of granules
lamellated vs. keratohyaline granules
Lamellated granules
contain glycolipids
Keratohyaline granules
contain keratin
Glycolipids and keratin
released onto superficial layers
Statum lucidum(thick skin only)
stratum immediately above stratum granulosum
keratinocytes in this stratum are filled with glycolipids
keratin and these cells appear lucid
hence the name stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum
most superficial layer of skin
20-30 layers of dead cell filled with keratin and coated with glycolipids
tough, abrasive-resistant coat(=keratin)
when intact first line of defense against pathogens
keratinocyes in this layer are cornified(impregnated with keratin) and coated with glycolipids
Dermis(2 subdivisions)
superficial papillary layer
deeper reticular layer
Superficial papillary layer
composed of dense irregular
abut the reticular lamina of the basement membrane beneath epidermis
surface has dermal papillae
houses blood vessels(because areolar CT highly vascularized)
has touch receptors called meissner's corpscules
Dermal papillae
houses nerve endings(couple with Merkel cells to form Merkel discs at the epidermal-dermal junction)
Deeper reticular layer
composed of aerolar CT
low pH at the surface of the cell
Acidic mantle of sweat
antibodies=neutralize/immobilize microorganisms
demidin= retards microbial growth
acid environment
Eccrine sweat glands
secrete sweat
Apocrine sweat glands
present at birth but become active after puberty
secrete thick, viscous fluid containg proteins and fats
Proteins and fats
catabolized by pathogens on the skin surface to give off body odor
hence apocrine sweat glands referred to as sudoriferous glands
Merocrine mode of secretion
used by both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands
misnomer because the apocrine sweat glands use the merocrine mode of excretion
Merocrine mode of secretion
secretory cell undergoes exocytosis to release products
Holocrine mode of secretion
secretory cell ruptures to release accumulated products
Apocrine mode of secretion
apex of the secretory cell pinches off to release accumulated products
Function of hairs(of 3 types of hair)
eyelashes-protect the eyes
hair on scalp- protect the scalp and the underlying blood vessels
vibrissae-nasal hairs, filter coarse particles in inhaled air
Function of hair as an insulator
due to action of the arrector pili muscle to hair follicle
cold vs. hot weather
Cold weather
arrector pili contracts
pull hair from oblique to upright position
layer of air trapped by hair strands
hair strand upright-poor conductor of heat and hence act as an insulator
Hot weather
increase in sweat production
because water has high heat capacity for evaporation
heat is provided by the body to evaporate sweat from the surface of the skin
hence cooling the body
maintain a stable/core body temperature
Hot and Cold weather control systems
Skeletal system
consists of bones(organs) and cartilage
Bones(4 classes)
4 classes based on shape and structure
structure defines function
long, short, irregular and flat bones FLISH
Short bone
specialized type of short bone embedded in tendon are referred to as sesamoid bones(=patellae=knee caps)
Irregular bones
any bone that doesn't fit into any of the above 3 classes
2 types of bone tissue(long bone)
spongy vs. compact bone
Spongy bone
composed of flattened needle like structures called trabeculae(as the structural units of spongy bone tissue)
has large opening spaces filled with blood vessels and red bone marrow
COmpact bone
composed of structural units called osteons
arrange in lamellae
each is composed of concentric tubes called lamellae.
hence compact bone is also known as lamellae(dense) bone
Arrangement of collagen
arrangement of collagen is opposite in adjacent lamellae to prevent twisting of bone
Long bone(structure)
larger than it is wider
2 expanded ends called epiphyses
diaphysis(shaft) is between the epiphyses
collar of compact bone enclosing a space called the medullar cavity
medullar cavity
contains red bone marrow in the long bones of children
contains yellow bone marrow in the long bones in adults
contain spongy bone tissue in the inside covered by thin layers of compact bone tissue
ends are capped in thin layer of hyaline cartilage(articular cartilage)
Spongy bone tissue(epiphyses)
contains red bone marrow irrespective of age(adults or children)
Long bone(2 types of connective tissue)
associated with two types of connective tissue
periosteum vs. endosteum
exterior of diaphysis(double layered)
attached to external surface of compact bone of diaphysis by tough-cord like structures called Sharpey's fibers(perforating)
outer fibrous layer vs. inner osteogenic layer
Outer fibrous later
dense irregular CT
Inner osteogenic layer
2 types of cells
osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts
derived from mesenchyme secrete bone(osseous) tissue
large mutlinucleated cells that caus bone breakdown(resorption)
Volkmann's canals
horizontal canals used by blood vessels( from the fibrous layer of the periosteum) to enter into the compact bone
join the vertical blood vessel in the core of the osteon
Core of the osteon
referred to as the HArversian canal
small hair-like canals extend from blood vessel in the Harvesian canal to the lacunae(where osteocytes reside)
Maintenance of bone tissue
nutrients and O2 diffuse from blood in the canaliculi to the osteocytes in the lacunae
blood vessels that enter the compact bone extend into the spaces in the spongy bone
Epiphyseal plates
plates at the metaphysis(junction of the diaphysis and epiphyses)
plates of hyaline cartilage
present in the metaphysis in the long bone of children
plates allow for longitudinal bone growth
in adults, ossify(turned into bone tissue) leaving a line called the epiphyseal line
influence longitudinal bone growth
mostly growth hormones
levels of growth hormones in children are higher than in adults
Architecture of 3 other tyes of bone
spongy bone tissue with trabecullae covered by endosteum sandwiched between thins plates of periosteum covered compact bone
Appositional bone growth
second type of post natal bone growth
occurs in all bones(as opposed to longitudinal bone growth which occurs only in long bone)
Bone formation outpaces bone resorption
osteoblasts secrete new bone tissue unto the external surface of the bone
osteoclasts in endosteum(lines inner surface of bones) cause a slight resorption of the bone in the internal surface of the bone
Overall increase in diameter
Bone remodeling
occurs throughout life
indicates bones are dynamic organs in the body
bone formation and resorption occur at a constant rate
Bone remodeling(functions)
maintain calcium homeostasis
levels of ionic calcium(Ca2+) strictly maintained between 9mg-11mg/100 cc of blood
Ionic calcium levels
directly/indirectly affect cell physiological processes occuring in the body
Bone remodeling(control)
hormonal control
mechanical control
Hormonal control
2 hormones important in calcium homeostasis
parathyroid hormone
stimulus for PTH release
ionic levels below 9mg/100 cc of blood
stimulate osteoclasts indirectly
cause bone resorption
stimulates calcium reabsorption from tubular fluid in kidneys
stimulate synthesis of hormone called 1.25(OH2)VitD
1.25(OH2)Vit D
only hormone to directly stimulate calcium from small intestine
Bone(calcium storage)
bone stores about 1 kg of calcium in the form of hydroxyapatites
stimular for calcitonin is hyperalcemia
blood calcium level above 11mg/100 cc of blood
stimulates osteoblasts to secrete new bone tissue
mineralized incorportation of hydroxyapatites in the newly synthesized bone tissue
calcium moved from the blood to the bone tissue
stimulates calcium excretion in urine>decrease in blood calcium levels
3 structural classes
fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, synovial joints
Fibrous joints
bones are united by fibrous connective tissue
dense regular CT
3 subtypes of fibrous joints
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
only present in skull
in children amphiarthrotic joints(allow for expansion of brain)
in adults synarthrotic joints(form immovable vault to protect developed brain)
2 types
cord of dense connective tissue(regular CT) called ligaments
sheet-like dense regular CT called inter-osseous membrane
considered amphiarthrotic joints
short periodontal ligaments connect the root of teeth to alveolar sockets in mandible and two maxillae
considered synarthrotic joints
Cartilaginous joints
joints cavity absent
bones united by cartilage
2 types
synchondroses vs. symphyses
hyaline cartilage unites the bones
generally considered synarthrotic joints
ex: epiphyseal plates
fibrocartilage unites the bones
amphiarthrotic joints
ex:intervertebral discs
Synovial joints
articular cartilage
joint cavity
articular capsule
ligaments that reinforce synovial joints
Articular cartilage
caps the ends of epiphyses
Joint cavity
space that contains synovial fluid which acts a lubricant to reduce friction
only in synovial joints
Articular capsule
outer fibrous capsule-dense irregular CT
inner synovial membrane
Ligaments that reinforce synovial joints
-located inside fibrous capsule(e.g. medial collateral ligaments)
Extracapsular ligaments
located external to the articular capsule(ex:tibial collateral ligaments)
Intracapsular ligaments
located deep to articular cartilage
ex: anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)
blow to the front of extended knee tears ACL
Synovial joints(active joints)
joints that are often used
equipped with unique features
Active joints(features)
menisci, bursae-reduce friction
tendon sheaths-improve fit to minimize wear and tear at the joint as one ages
all are diarthrotic joints
Shape of surface of the bone
dictates the type of movement allowed
6 types
plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle joints
ball-and-socket joint
Plane joint
articulating surfaces are flat, movement allowed, known as gliding
Hinge joint
one articular surface is cylindrical and the other is a through;
movement/extension, which increases the angle of a joint and flexion(decreases the angle of a joint)
Pivot joint
one atircular surface is round and the other surface in a sleeve or ring
rotation(atlantoaxial joint) allow for movement of the head from side to side to motion no
Condyloid joint
one articular surface is oval protusion and the other surface is an oval depression
movement-extension, flexion, abduction(movement of a limb away from trunk of body)
adduction(movement of a limb toward trunk of body)
circumduction(movement of a limb to describe a cone in space)
atlanto-occipital joint(yes motion)
Saddle joint
only in thumbs
one articular bone has both convex and concave surfaces and the other articular bone has both(in reverse)
movement:flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
Ball and socket joint
one articular surface is a spherical head and the other surface is a cuplike socket
ultimate diarthrotic joints-all movements are allowed