Case Study Of Anatomy And Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body parts.
Physiology is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole.

Aims and Objectives

 The composition of bone
 The structure of a long bone
 Classifying the types of joint found in the body
 Description of synovial joint
 How joint operates
 How two different systems communicate for normal functioning of a joint
 Description of a disease involving the musculoskeletal system
 A case study of a primary piece of research regarding the disease/condition
 A conclusion and Recommendation
 Diagrams

The Composition Of Bone

The bones are made up of several different tissues and have different shapes. Consisting of 25% of water,
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The movements of the elbow joints are flexion and extension. Rotation of the forearm occurs at the superior radio-ulnar joint which is closely associated with the elbow joint. The movements of the ankle joint are dorsiflexion, which is carrying the top of the foot up towards the leg, and plantarflexion, which is pointing the toes. The movements of inversion and eversion do not occur at the ankle. They are produced by the bones of the tarsus gliding on each other. The interphalangeal joints are the joints of the fingers and toes which can be curled up (flexion) and straightened out (extension. The knee joint is much more complicated, as it has to support the weight of the body in addition to being freely movable. It is not a true hinge joint as slight rotation is possible when the knee is flexed. This joint has intracapsular structures which add to its strength. Two ligaments cross each other in the centre of the knee joining the tibia to the femur. These are the cruciate ligaments. If you look at the shape of the articular surfaces, you will see that the rounded condyles of the femur sit on the flat surfaces on the condyles of the tibia. Two crescent-shaped cartilages act as wedges, deepening the surface of the tibia to receive the femoral condyles. These are the menisci, the cartilages which get torn in certain injuries to the knee. The outside of the capsule is strengthened by ligaments and also by the powerful quadriceps muscle which forms the front of the knee joint and has the patella in its

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