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35 Cards in this Set

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Vascular Plants

plants that have evolved complex transport systems more nutrients and water

Trees are examples of _______




Mosses are not examples of ______

Lignin

chemical found in the cell walls of plants for support

_____ is found in vascular plants to provide support




_____is found in cellulose

Xylem

cells used to transfer water and minerals around the rest of the plants from the roots

hollow and tube-shaped




responsible for the cohesion-tension hypothesis

Phloem

cells that carry organic nutrients around the plant using active transport

longer and skinnier




responsible for the pressure-flow hypothesis

Tracheids

type of xylem cells with holes that allow it to connect with other cells, used for water transport

thick cell walls

thick cell walls





Vessel Elements

type of xylem cells with openings at each end to be used for water transport

thinner cell walls




wider and shorter than tracheids

Cohesion

water molecules can stick to other water molecules

_____ occurs through hydrogen bonds




______ is one of the factors that allows vascular plants to transport water against gravity

Adhesion

water molecules can stick to other polar molecules

water attaches to the sides of xylem using ____




___ and cohesion cause capillary action

Sieve Tubes

phloem cells create a chain together which works as a channel to transfer nutrients
surrounded by companion cells

surrounded by companion cells

Endosperm

tissue that carries nutrients from a plant to an embryo

created in the seeds of flowering plants




provides mainly starch to the embryo

Cotyledons

a way for the embryo or seed to store nutrients and perform photosynthesis until leaves are grown

sometimes called "seed leaves"




__ also store nutrients from the endosperm

Apical Meristems

plant cells at the ends of the shoot and root of a plant that constantly split up

a type of undifferentiated cell




these cells develop others to become differentiated

Seed Coat

protective layer around the endosperm and embryo until it sprouts

Ex. An outer layer of a nut

Ex. An outer layer of a nut

Germination

when the seed sprouts

final step of an embryo becoming an individual plant




jobs of the parent plant are now passed on to the embryo

Primary Growth

vertical growth of a plant due to growth at the meristems

redwood trees have a lot of ______ which is why they are tall




cell divisions in the apical meristems supplies new cells for ______

Node

areas on the plant where leaves will emerge

also called meristems




looks like a place where the tree has a split

Root Cap

protective layer of cells on the apical meristem of the root
with the root pushing through soil as the plant grows a _____ is very helpful to keep it safe

with the root pushing through soil as the plant grows a _____ is very helpful to keep it safe

Epidermis

outermost tissue

similar to human skin, only for a plant cell

similar to human skin, only for a plant cell

Cuticle

protective covering over leaves

the root cap for leaves



retains moisture

Vascular Tissue

layer of xylem and phloem cells
layer of tissue transports things throughout the cell

layer of tissue transports things throughout the cell





Ground Tissue

cells that provide support and shape to the inside of the cell



layer also creates organic compounds




some ___________ can become specialized

Secondary Growth

widening of a plant due to cell division in the vascular cambium

horizontal growth



cause for the rings in a tree stump

Vascular Cambium

meristem tissue layer

near the surface of roots and stems




outer surface differentiates into phloem

pericycle

meristem tissue that surrounds the xylem and phloem in the roots
source of root branches



also know as root meristem



PGR

compounds that influence a plant's growth and development

similar effect as hormones in animals



made by genes

auxins

chemicals that make roots grow longer and wider in low concentration, but shorter and skinnier with fruits from flowers in higher concentration
made in the apical meristems and seeds



effect depends on the concentration

gibberellins

makes stems grow longer, makes fruit faster and creates digestive enzymes in endosperm

produced in apical meristems and germinating embryos




promotes development of fruit





cytokinins

regulates growth pattern, increases cell division, organ development, lateral growth of branches, and chloroplast development

mostly made in fruits and roots




cooperates with PGR and auxins

abscisic acid

tells the plant to close stomata make buds and seeds dormant and create storage proteins for seeds

produced in dry conditions



helps to prevent unnecessary water loss

ethylene

ages tissues and prevents the effects of auxins and cytokinins

stops development of lower branch buds



promotes digestion of organic compounds from old leaves

tropism

growth toward or away from a stimulus

_____ result from differences in growth between parts of an organ




plants growing towards light is an example of a ______

phototropism

growth toward a light source because of higher auxin concentration on the dark side

one side of the stem continues growing while the other stops, making it curve




charles Darwin studied this

gravitropism

growth toward or away fro the Earth's gravitational pull

results from auxins, PGRs and calcium ion concentrations



auxin play a big role in this





photoperiodism

how the plant grows based on the light and darkness during a 24-hour period

When a plant flowers germinates and grows rapidly is dependent on part of this process






phytochrome

pigment that tells the plant how long it is dark

there are two forms of this




absorbs far red light or regular red light