Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Vascular Plants

plants that have evolved complex transport systems more nutrients and water

Trees are examples of _______

Mosses are not examples of ______


chemical found in the cell walls of plants for support

_____ is found in vascular plants to provide support

_____is found in cellulose


cells used to transfer water and minerals around the rest of the plants from the roots

hollow and tube-shaped

responsible for the cohesion-tension hypothesis


cells that carry organic nutrients around the plant using active transport

longer and skinnier

responsible for the pressure-flow hypothesis


type of xylem cells with holes that allow it to connect with other cells, used for water transport

thick cell walls

thick cell walls

Vessel Elements

type of xylem cells with openings at each end to be used for water transport

thinner cell walls

wider and shorter than tracheids


water molecules can stick to other water molecules

_____ occurs through hydrogen bonds

______ is one of the factors that allows vascular plants to transport water against gravity


water molecules can stick to other polar molecules

water attaches to the sides of xylem using ____

___ and cohesion cause capillary action

Sieve Tubes

phloem cells create a chain together which works as a channel to transfer nutrients
surrounded by companion cells

surrounded by companion cells


tissue that carries nutrients from a plant to an embryo

created in the seeds of flowering plants

provides mainly starch to the embryo


a way for the embryo or seed to store nutrients and perform photosynthesis until leaves are grown

sometimes called "seed leaves"

__ also store nutrients from the endosperm

Apical Meristems

plant cells at the ends of the shoot and root of a plant that constantly split up

a type of undifferentiated cell

these cells develop others to become differentiated

Seed Coat

protective layer around the endosperm and embryo until it sprouts

Ex. An outer layer of a nut

Ex. An outer layer of a nut


when the seed sprouts

final step of an embryo becoming an individual plant

jobs of the parent plant are now passed on to the embryo

Primary Growth

vertical growth of a plant due to growth at the meristems

redwood trees have a lot of ______ which is why they are tall

cell divisions in the apical meristems supplies new cells for ______


areas on the plant where leaves will emerge

also called meristems

looks like a place where the tree has a split

Root Cap

protective layer of cells on the apical meristem of the root
with the root pushing through soil as the plant grows a _____ is very helpful to keep it safe

with the root pushing through soil as the plant grows a _____ is very helpful to keep it safe


outermost tissue

similar to human skin, only for a plant cell

similar to human skin, only for a plant cell


protective covering over leaves

the root cap for leaves

retains moisture

Vascular Tissue

layer of xylem and phloem cells
layer of tissue transports things throughout the cell

layer of tissue transports things throughout the cell

Ground Tissue

cells that provide support and shape to the inside of the cell

layer also creates organic compounds

some ___________ can become specialized

Secondary Growth

widening of a plant due to cell division in the vascular cambium

horizontal growth

cause for the rings in a tree stump

Vascular Cambium

meristem tissue layer

near the surface of roots and stems

outer surface differentiates into phloem


meristem tissue that surrounds the xylem and phloem in the roots
source of root branches

also know as root meristem


compounds that influence a plant's growth and development

similar effect as hormones in animals

made by genes


chemicals that make roots grow longer and wider in low concentration, but shorter and skinnier with fruits from flowers in higher concentration
made in the apical meristems and seeds

effect depends on the concentration


makes stems grow longer, makes fruit faster and creates digestive enzymes in endosperm

produced in apical meristems and germinating embryos

promotes development of fruit


regulates growth pattern, increases cell division, organ development, lateral growth of branches, and chloroplast development

mostly made in fruits and roots

cooperates with PGR and auxins

abscisic acid

tells the plant to close stomata make buds and seeds dormant and create storage proteins for seeds

produced in dry conditions

helps to prevent unnecessary water loss


ages tissues and prevents the effects of auxins and cytokinins

stops development of lower branch buds

promotes digestion of organic compounds from old leaves


growth toward or away from a stimulus

_____ result from differences in growth between parts of an organ

plants growing towards light is an example of a ______


growth toward a light source because of higher auxin concentration on the dark side

one side of the stem continues growing while the other stops, making it curve

charles Darwin studied this


growth toward or away fro the Earth's gravitational pull

results from auxins, PGRs and calcium ion concentrations

auxin play a big role in this


how the plant grows based on the light and darkness during a 24-hour period

When a plant flowers germinates and grows rapidly is dependent on part of this process


pigment that tells the plant how long it is dark

there are two forms of this

absorbs far red light or regular red light