Plant Hormones: A Case Study Of Auxin-Oxygen

Great Essays
Plant Hormones:
DIAGRAMS/PICTURES NEEDED:
Hormone Locations (color coordinated and showing relative concentrations)
Auxin- Auxin is a hormone that’s main function is to promote cell elongation in stems, buds and roots and also plays a small part in the differentiation or new cells. Auxin is present in high concentrations in germinating fruits and seeds, but it is not yet known whether this high concentration of auxin is passed on from the mother or whether is is created but the developing tissues. Auxin also helps control what direction growth occurs. Plants “control” growth by changing the concentration of auxin in different regions. There is a higher concentration of auxin on the dark side of stems. The cells on this side of the stem then
…show more content…
Cytokinin also regulates the growth of buds. Cytokinin acts in roots and stems, more specifically the meristems in these regions. Even though cytokinin acts in the growing stems, it is only produced in the roots. The roots cells must produce cytokinin that then travels up the xylem to other regions of growth throughout the plant. The receptors in for cytokinins are most commonly found in the ER. Since the receptors for this hormone are inside the cells, the hormone must be non-polar and small enough to fit across the membrane. Once the hormone has entered the cell and binded to its receptor, cytokinin stimulates the productions of proteins that are essential to mitosis. When the concentration of this proteins increases, it is more likely that there will be a favorable collision and a reaction will occur. In this way, cytokinin helps increase mitosis in growing regions of the plant. Similarly to Auxin, cytokinins also help with modifying apical dominance, but instead of promoting main stem growth it promotes lateral bud growth. Since cytokinins are such important growth hormones, the also play a part in beginning and continuing seed germination. Cytokinins also delay leaf senescence, the final stage of leaf development. Leaf senescence is when the leaves turn a different color, and transport all of their essential molecules back into the plant in preparation to fall. Cytokinins slow this process to allow leaves more time to

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    This is so that they can facilitate more water transport through their cells when the plant is stimulated and cause movement. The tannin cells, which are cells located in the pulvini that are not motor cells, have been known to have high concentrations of calcium. Researchers believe that the tannin cells use the calcium to reorganize the motor cells after they lose water…

    • 1053 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    2010) and biological N2 fixation (Ardakani et al. 2010). The plants also exhibit antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic microorganisms by producing siderophores, chitinases, b-1,3-glucanase, fluorescent pigment, antibiotics, antifungal metabolites, and/or lytic enzymes, increasing plant nutrients availability via systemic resistance induction (Egamberdieva et al. 2013). PGPRs may use more than one of these mechanisms to improve plant growth.…

    • 1465 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Brassica Rapa Seeds

    • 1478 Words
    • 6 Pages

    This is relevant question for the life of plants because cytokinins primarily promote lateral growth (branching out), balanced by auxins (a different plant growth hormone) which combat lateral growth. It is crucial for germination because the endosperm of the seeds contain large amounts of the cytokinin (specifically zeatin), and when the seed germinates, it moves from the endosperm to the root tip where it stimulates mitosis. (Cytokinins, 2016) The hypothesis is that if all other variables are controlled and the levels of treatment are applied to the subjects cohesively, the mustard seeds’ radicle and hypocotyl will grow larger both vertically and horizontally; and therefore the quality of the germinating seed will be higher with the addition of cytokinin (zeatin). This applies and can be supported because in nature, the concentration of auxin and cytokinin are supposed to be equal, and therefore normal cell division is supposed to occur. If the concentration of the concentration of the cytokinin is higher, it is hypothesized that there will be a higher amount of growth and stronger results.…

    • 1478 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Ethylene Research Paper

    • 2059 Words
    • 9 Pages

    The ACC deaminase bacteria first binds to the seeds or roots surface, while some endophytic bacteria are also found inside the roots of a plant. Then the bacteria synthesize indoleacetic acid (IAA) in response to root exudates that includes an amino acid called tryptophan. The plant cells together this IAA that is synthesized by the bacteria with the endogenous plant IAA that then involved in the cell proliferation and elongation as well as also induces the synthesis of enzyme ACCC synthase. In the next step some of ACC is absorbed and taken up by the ACC deaminase containing bacteria. Then this ACC is converted in to ammonia and α-ketobutyrate and then these both are metabolized by the bacteria.…

    • 2059 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Alpha Amylase Experiment

    • 2365 Words
    • 10 Pages

    An Investigation into the Activity of Alpha-amylase Enzyme in Relation to Temperature and PH Introduction: The role of amylase in plants is the breakdown of starches so that they can be used as energy in the first stages of early growth (wise geek, [B] 2016). Enzymes are extremely efficient natural catalysts that are found in cells, they work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction and providing an alternative reaction pathway. Enzymes are very specific, only catalysing certain reactions and this is due to the determined shape of the enzyme molecule (Male, 2016). Because amylase is an enzyme, however, it means that it acts as a catalyst to hydrolyse carbohydrates. With the use of alpha-amylase the reaction is increased by a number of…

    • 2365 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    How might this influence effort to prevents transgene escape? A: in such species, engineering the transgene into the chloroplast DNA would not prevent its escape in pollen; such as method requires that cholorplast DNA be found only in the egg. And entirely different method of preventing transgene escape would therefore be needed, such as male sterility, apomixes, or self-pollinating closed flowers. Hybridization of different varieties and even species of plants is common in nature and has been used by breeders, ancient and modern, to introduce new genes into crops. After two plants are successfully hybridized, plant breeders select those progeny that have the desired traits.…

    • 1368 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However, the overall effect of using two strains of P. polymyxa proved that the mixture of bacteria strains and rhizobium were perfect to exploit IST system and increase root nodules. Not only this, but I believe PGPR has the ability to change molecular DNA activities. I believe this because PGPR promotes root development and alter root architecture by the production of phytohormones like indole acetic acid (IAA). This production of hormones result in increased root surface area and numbers of root tips because of the push for nutrient uptake. We do not fully comprehend the mechanism, but…

    • 1445 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Centrosome is the regions that responsible for formation of spindle fibers from the microtubules. These spindle fibers are needed for pulling the chromosomes apart from each others in anaphase. It is necessary for formation of the microtubules and without the centrosome, there will not be any separation of the chromosomes and genetic disorders will develop. 6. What are advantages of using onion roots for viewing mitosis?…

    • 1041 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    • Genetic Modification is the utilisation of biotechnology to alter the genes of an organism. • Aids in adapting the genetic composition to increase the sustainability as a specific crop may require cooler weather however drought inhibits the growth or potential of the organism therefore the genes can be adapted to suit the cooler weather rather than drought. • The process consists of identifying an organism with the desirable trait and mixing the genetic material. • The alternation on an organism genetic makeup. • The genetic information on two organisms is mixed to allow the organism to inherit the desirable trait of the other.…

    • 1004 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Plant Propagation Essay

    • 769 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The new bud formed remain attached to the parent plant but it is detached when it get mature. Due to its asexual production it is identical to its parent plant. Grafting is a process of attaching a tissue of one plant to the tissue of another plant. It is process done by horticulturist, in which they take a bud of one plant and attach it to another plant after scratching or damaging the 2nd plant tissues to attach that bud. The budding refers to as plant propagation in which buds are grafted in stem of desired plant.…

    • 769 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays