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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Human Factors

•Fit between people and products,equipment, facilities, procedures, environments

•How work design affects people

•Matching design to people’s capabilities,limitations, needs

•Changing the organization, task,technology and environment to better fit to the person

Objectives of Human Factors

•Enhance effectiveness and efficiency withwhich work (or non-work) activities are carried out

•Improve safety, comfort, acceptance, jobsatisfaction, and quality of life AND reduce fatigue, stress and injury inorder to reduce errors, increase productivity, increase convenience of use

Person Approach

•Focuson individuals

•Blamingindividuals for forgetfulness, inattention or carelessness, poor production•Methods:poster campaigns, writing another procedure, disciplinary measures, threat oflitigation, retraining, blaming and shaming•Targetindividuals

System Approach

•Focuson the conditions under which individuals work

•Buildingdefenses to avert errors/poor productivity or mitigate their effects

•Methods:creating better systems

•Targets:system (team, tasks, workplace, organization)

Work Systems Model

HFE and IT Systems

-Reduce Errors

-Improve Safety

-Improve Efficiency

-Improve Performance

-Improve Quality

Factors of HFE

-Ease of use


-Response time


-Convenience of access



Define Human Computer Interaction

-study of how people interact with computers

-the extent to which computers are or are not developed for people

Importance of HCI

-Computers affect everyone in society

-Product success may depend on ease of use, not necessarily power

Goals of HCI

-Allow users to carry out tasks

-Increased user satisfaction

-Better productivity

User-Centered Design

-product development method that consists of task-based business objectives

-Identify user's needs and requirements

-Conceptualize alternative interface designs

-Evaluate and assess the designs

Interaction Design

-the art and practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems and services


-Importance of use

-Combination of

-Ease of learning

-High speed of user task performance

-Low user error rate

-Subjective user satisfication

-User retention over time

Norman's Formative Rules

•Create effective mental models

•Make appropriate functionality visible

•Use natural mappings

•Use affordances

•Use constraints

•Provide feedback

•Memory in the world vs. in the head•Recognition over recall

•Design with errors in mind


-Describes relationship between a person and an object

-Define actions that are possible

-preceived properties


-Specify how people discover what actions are possible

-Signs; perceptible signals of what can be done

Natural Mappings

Predictable link between action in the world and the consequences


-Convey possible/appropriate actions

-Refers to determining ways of restricting the kind of user interaction that can take place at a given moment

4 Types of Constraints





Physical Constraint

-Closely related to real affordances

-Can be perceived directly just by looking at the object itself without prior learning

-Keys only work in a specific way

-DVD only working when placed in player a specific way

Semantic Constraint

-Rely upon the meaning of the situation to control the set of possible actions

-Function of a car- to transport people from one place to another-car must be running on the road and the driver must be seated facing forward...

Cultural Constraint

-Conventions shared by a cultural group

-Regarding the scroll bar - the fact that one must move the cursor to the bar,hold down the mouse button and drag it downward in order to see the objects located below the objects

-Red - universally perceived as meaning to stop

Logical Constraint

-Use reasoning to determine alternatives


-Valuable in guiding behavior

-By making the fundamental design model visible, users can readily (or logically) deduce those actions that are required

-Go hand in hand with a good conceptual model


Lets user know what has just occurred

Knowledge in the World vs. in the Head

-Two ways knowledge can be categorized

-Deal with the ways products are learned and used by people

-Knowledge in the world: Draws on mapping and other mechanisms in the design of a product which allows a person to use the product without much learning required to use them

Knowledge in the head

-Basically, what we know or have learned from experience

-It is often said that products where there is a greater deal of knowledge in the head are more more efficient b/c once we have learned how to do something, we can, often, remember this knowledge for later use


Recognition over Recall

-People are better at recognizing things they have previously experienced than they are at recalling those things from memory

-Minimize user's memory load

Design with Errors in Mind

-The myth of the perfect system

-The error is human

-Making mistakes is par of learning

Perceptual Errors

-Result from insufficient or poor perceptual cues

-Display of objects that are visually similar

-Invisible or poorly expressed states

-Failure to capture user's attention

-Lack of perceivable feedback

Cognitive Errors

-Caused by taxing the memory and problem solving capabilities

-Tax recall memory

-Lack of poor mnemonic aids


-Lack of context or status information

Motor Errors

-Taxing the hand-eye coordination and motor skills

-Awkward motor movements

-Highly similar motor sequences

-Pressure for speed

-Require a high degree of hand-eye coordination

-Requiring special types of motor skills (type)

Visual Acuity

-Ability to detect fine detail

-Detection, alignment, recognition


-6-7 million

-allows one to see color and during the day

-found mostly in the fovea


-130 million

-allos one to see at night

-black and white peripheral vision

-Found spread over the retina/ periphery of the retina


-switching from dark to light environments

-can cause fatique


Frequency-pitch-(young human ears are sensitive to 20-20000 HZ

-can discriminate between 2000 and 5000 Hz

Information Processing

-Long-term vs. Short-Term

-Cpacity of each (LTM - seemingly unlimited)

-STM 7 +/- 2 chunks ("newer" research suggests it is more like 4-6 units of information)

-Purpose of chunking

-Physical binding and cognitive binding

Heuristic Evaluation

-systematic inspection of a user interface design for usability. It involves having a small set of elevators examine the interface and judge its compliance with recognized usability principles

Difference Between a Usability Test and Heuristic Evauation