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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What is Process Loss? Steiner's

When Reduction in Performance is caused by Actions, Operations, or Dynamics

That Prevent the Group from forming full potential

What is Steiner's Law of Productivity


AP (actual productivity)

PP (potential productivity)

PL (factors that reduce productivity)

What is Social Facilitation?

Simple Task performance increases when observed

Task requires dominant response

E.g. Zajonc's Cockroach Study

What is Social Interference?

Complex task performance decreases when observed

Tasks requires non-dominant responses

What is Drive Theory?

The mere presence of others Elevate Drive levels (arousal)

Easy tasks provoke challenge response

Difficult task provokes threat response

What is Evaluation Apprehension?

Concern for how others are evaluating us

What is Self-presentation Theory?

People try to make a good impression

When they work in the presence of others

What is Direction Conflict Theory?

When others are present

Attentional conflict between focusing on tasks and distraction for others creates arousal

Simple tasks: increases motivation and performance

Difficult tasks: decreases performance

What is Social Orientation Theory?

Suggest that social orientation (how people approach social situations)

Predicts when social facilitation occurs

Positive orientation more likely to display social facilitation effects

Negative orientation more likely to show social interference effects

What is Social Loafing?

In a group setting

There is a diminishing feeling of responsibility

That decreases individual effort

Ringelman effect

What is Coordination loss?

People cannot combine their efforts with maximum efficiency

What is the Social Loafing process?

Being Evaluated as a group


Subjective easy tasks cause worse individual performance

Subjective hard task cause better individual performance

What is the Collective Effort model?

Group members motivation is determined by

Expectation about reaching a goal and

Value of that goal

What is McGrath's Task Circumplex Mode?

Distinguishes between:




Executing tasks

Task differ along 2 dimensions:

Conceptual - Behavioural

Cooperation - Conflict

What is a Collective Intelligence (C Factor)?

The general ability of the group to perform a wide variety of tasks

When do groups perform better?

Include more women

Members are higher in social sensitivity

Members contribute equal rates to the task

What is Steiner's Typology of Group Tasks?

The type of task the group is attempting

Requires different Task Demands

What are Task Demands?

Defined by


Type of output desire (quality or quantity)

How individual member input is combined

What are 5 different ways individual inputs combined to yield group product?






What are Additives?

Individual inputs are added together

Vulnerable to social loafing

E.g. pulling a rope

What is Compensatory?

Decision is made by averaging together individual decisions

Wiser in larger crowds and easier task

E.g. estimating amount of jelly beans in a bowl

What is Disjunctive?

Selecting one decision adopted by the group

Better with intellectual and judgmental task

What is Conjunctive?

All members must contribute for the task to be completed

Performance depends on most inferior member

E.g. Climbing a mountain

What is Discretionary?

The group decides how individual inputs relate to the group product

Best if someone is an expert

E.g. Choose to vote on the greatest answer to a problem

What is Synergy? (Process Gain)

Achieving Collective results

That couldn't be achieved by any member working alone

What is Strong Synergy?

The group outperforms its best member

What is weak synergy?

The group's outperforms its typical member