Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

What is Process Loss? Steiner's

When Reduction in Performance is caused by Actions, Operations, or Dynamics



That Prevent the Group from forming full potential

What is Steiner's Law of Productivity

AP=PP-PL



AP (actual productivity)


PP (potential productivity)


PL (factors that reduce productivity)

What is Social Facilitation?

Simple Task performance increases when observed



Task requires dominant response



E.g. Zajonc's Cockroach Study

What is Social Interference?

Complex task performance decreases when observed



Tasks requires non-dominant responses

What is Drive Theory?

The mere presence of others Elevate Drive levels (arousal)



Easy tasks provoke challenge response



Difficult task provokes threat response

What is Evaluation Apprehension?

Concern for how others are evaluating us

What is Self-presentation Theory?

People try to make a good impression



When they work in the presence of others

What is Direction Conflict Theory?

When others are present



Attentional conflict between focusing on tasks and distraction for others creates arousal



Simple tasks: increases motivation and performance



Difficult tasks: decreases performance

What is Social Orientation Theory?

Suggest that social orientation (how people approach social situations)



Predicts when social facilitation occurs



Positive orientation more likely to display social facilitation effects



Negative orientation more likely to show social interference effects

What is Social Loafing?

In a group setting



There is a diminishing feeling of responsibility



That decreases individual effort



Ringelman effect

What is Coordination loss?

People cannot combine their efforts with maximum efficiency

What is the Social Loafing process?

Being Evaluated as a group



Relaxation



Subjective easy tasks cause worse individual performance



Subjective hard task cause better individual performance

What is the Collective Effort model?

Group members motivation is determined by



Expectation about reaching a goal and



Value of that goal

What is McGrath's Task Circumplex Mode?

Distinguishes between:


Generating


Choosing


Negotiating


Executing tasks



Task differ along 2 dimensions:


Conceptual - Behavioural


Cooperation - Conflict

What is a Collective Intelligence (C Factor)?

The general ability of the group to perform a wide variety of tasks

When do groups perform better?

Include more women



Members are higher in social sensitivity



Members contribute equal rates to the task

What is Steiner's Typology of Group Tasks?

The type of task the group is attempting



Requires different Task Demands

What are Task Demands?

Defined by



Divisibility



Type of output desire (quality or quantity)



How individual member input is combined

What are 5 different ways individual inputs combined to yield group product?

Additive


Compensatory


Disjunctive


Conjunctive


Discretionary

What are Additives?

Individual inputs are added together



Vulnerable to social loafing



E.g. pulling a rope

What is Compensatory?

Decision is made by averaging together individual decisions



Wiser in larger crowds and easier task



E.g. estimating amount of jelly beans in a bowl


What is Disjunctive?

Selecting one decision adopted by the group



Better with intellectual and judgmental task

What is Conjunctive?

All members must contribute for the task to be completed



Performance depends on most inferior member



E.g. Climbing a mountain

What is Discretionary?

The group decides how individual inputs relate to the group product



Best if someone is an expert



E.g. Choose to vote on the greatest answer to a problem

What is Synergy? (Process Gain)

Achieving Collective results



That couldn't be achieved by any member working alone

What is Strong Synergy?

The group outperforms its best member

What is weak synergy?

The group's outperforms its typical member