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35 Cards in this Set

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What is a Major Influence?

Social pressure of many against one



Maintain the status quo and resist change



Passive compliance, without much thought

What is a minority influence?

Social pressure of one against many



Generate social conflict and challenge norms



Gradual conversion and leads to original thinking

What is Conformity?

Change in opinion, judgment, or behavior



Due to the influence of other people

What was the Asch Line Judgment Studies?

An experiment on visual discrimination



That outlines average Conformity rates (about 1/3 of trails)

What are 5 Forms of Social Responses to Conformity?

Compliance


Independence


Conversion


Anticonformity


Congruence

What is Compliance?

Publicly agreeing with group



But privately disagreeing



Disagrees with group before discussion

What is Independence?

Disagree with group publicly and privately



Disagrees with group before discussion

What is Conversion?

Initially disagrees privately



But then agrees with group publicly and privately

What is Anticonformity?

Disagrees with group publicly



But agrees or is neutral privately

What is Congruence?

Agrees with group publicly and privately

What is Unanimity?

The tendancy to conform when the group is unanimous



Even having one ally will decrease our conformity

What is Social Impact Theory?

3 factors predict the likelihood of conforming to social influence



Strength: importance of the group



Immediacy: closeness of the group in space and time during the influence attempt



Number: number of members

How does Group Size affect Conformity?

Conformity peaks with 3-4 person majority

What are 5 personality traits related to conformity?

Authoritarian


High self monitors


Introverts


High agreeableness


Low self-confidence

What are the gender differences in conformity?

Women use conformity to increase Harmony (face-to-face groups)



Men use nonconformity to convey Independence

What is the cultural difference in conformity?

Conformity is higher in Collectivist Cultures



Than in individualistic cultures

What is Conversion Theory?

Group disagreement results in motivation to reduce conflict



By getting others to change (minority) or by changing own opinions (majority)

What must a minority group do to influence a majority?

Must present their views consistently

What is idiosyncrasy credit?

Credits a person earns overtime



By conforming to group norms, being competent, or being high status



Allows occasional deviation from group norms without retribution

What are Unanimity-rules?

Where everyone must agree



Benifits the minority

What are majority-rules?

Where more than half agrees



Benefits of majority

What are four sources of influence?

Implicit influence


Informational influence


Normative influence


Interpersonal influence

What is the chameleon effect?

Non-conscious mimicry



Of posture, mannerisms, and facial expressions of someone else

What is mindlessness?

State of reduce cognitive processing



Based on habits, routine, or previously form discriminations



Rather than conscious deliberation

What is informational influence?

Conforming in order to be right



Occurs in ambiguous or crisis situations



Related to descriptive norms

What is the False Consensus Effect?

Misjudging or overestimating



How much our beliefs are shared by others

What are Normative Influences?

Conforming to gain approval



Occurs when we want to be accepted



Related to a groups injunctive norms

What is the Dual Process theories of influence?

Suggest two routes to persuasion



Direct processes: when people focus on the strength of arguments



Indirect processes: when people focus on heuristics or external cues



Which route to persuasion depends on ability and motivation to focus

What is Interpersonal Influence?

Social responses that encourage or force members to conform



Includes verbal and nonverbal tactics designed to induce change

What is the Johnny Rocco study?

Study that shows people who consistently agree are more likeable

What is Subjective Group Dynamic?

Projection of deviance results in part from



Social categorization and social identity

What is the black sheep effect?

The tendency for people to dislike deviant ingroup members



Relative to outgroup members

What is the bystander effect?

The greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency



The less likely any one will help



E.g. the Kitty Genovese case

What is the smoke-room study?

Study that demonstrates the bystander effect

Why are people less likely to help as group size increases? (Bystander effect)

Informational social influence increases: assuming nothings wrong because no one else is concerned (pluralistic ignorance)



Diffusion of responsibility increases: assumes someone else will help



Normative social influence increases: people are afraid to stand out