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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are social norms?

Implicit or explicit rules a group has

For acceptable behavior, values, and beliefs of its members

What is the cultural experience of emotion?

Whether an emotion is expressed as good or bad useful or destructive

Shaped by culture norms

How did folkways define norms?

Conventional Behavior within a culture

What are group structures?

The underlying patterns of roles, norms, and networks of relations

Among members that define and organize the group

What are Mores?

Morally sanction standards for proper action in a culture or Society

Likely to become laws

What are descriptive norms?

What most people usually do, feel, or think

In a particular situation

More influential than injunctive norms

What are injunctive norms?

What people are supposed to do, feel, or think

In a particular situation

What are prescriptive norms?

Define the socially appropriate way to respond in a social situation

What people should do

What are proscriptive norms?

Define actions that should be avoided

What people should not do

What is the internalization of norms?

People experience discomfort

When they realize they are acting contrary to a norm

Usually with injunctive norms

E.g milgram's Norm violation demonstration: Asking strangers to give up seat on bus

Why do Norms remain?

Pluralistic ignorance

What is pluralistic ignorance?

A type of norm misperception

When each person in a group privately rejects the norms

But believes that others accept them

What is Role Differentiation?

The emergence and patterning of role-related actions

Task roles and relationship roles

What are the two basic demands that a group must meet to survive?

Accomplishing tasks

Maintaining relationships

What are Task Roles?

Any position that promotes the completion of tasks

E.g. coordinator, expert, evaluator, secretary

What are relationship roles?

Any position that improves quality of interpersonal relations among members

What was Moreland and Lewin's theory of group socialization?

Group socialization is a reciprocal process of group members and the group

Trying to meet each others needs and accomplish goals

What are the five Social Processes of group socialization?






What is stage 1 of group socialization? (Investigation)

The Individual looks for groups to satisfy personal needs (Reconnaissance)

The Group looks for individuals to help achieve group goals (Recruitment)

If both meet their entrance criteria, entry from a prospective member to a new member occurs

What is stage 2 of group socialization? (socialization)

The individual looks to change the group to satisfy their personal needs (Accommodation)

The group looks to change the individual to contribute more to group goals (Assimilation)

If both meet their acceptance criteria, acceptance to full member occurs

What is stage 3 of group socialization? (Maintenance)

The individual tries to find a specialized role to satisfy their personal needs (role negotiation)

Group tries to find a specialized role for individual to max achieving group goals (role negotiation)

If both reach their divergence criteria, individual becomes a marginalized member

What is stage 4 of group socialization? (Resocialization)

Individual looks to change the group to satisfy their personal needs again (accommodation)

Group looks to change the individual to contribute more to group goals again (assimilation)

If both fall below their Divergent criteria, convergence occurs and individual is full member

If both reach exit criteria, individual becomes an ex-member

What is a social network analysis?

Analysis used to describe the structure of a group

Through graphic representation and mathematical procedures that quantify these structures

Individuals in network (egocentric index)

Nodes (circles): member

Ties (arrow): directional or reciprocal relationship

Degree centrality: the number of ties to a node. Outdegree(directed out) Indegree (directed in)

Betweenness: Bridges between groups of nodes

Closeness: distance to all other members

Groups as Networks (sociocentric index)

Group size: number of individuals (n) who are connected by some type of tie

Density: how many people are linked to one another out of the total possible number of links

Cliques: subgroups within the larger group

Holes: gaps within the network

How do you calculate density of group?

Density of group = ties / possible ties

Possible ties = n(n-1)

n = number of individuals

DoG = 29/156

13(13-1) = 156

What is status differentiation?

Some members rise to positions of Greater Authority

While others fall to positions of lesser Authority

What is pecking order?

Prestige, status, and Authority among group members

What is Sociometric Differentiation?

Development of stronger and more positive ties between some members of the group

That decreases the quality of relations between other members

Attraction tends to be reciprocal and exist in cliques

What is Fritz's Balance Theory?

Sociometric structure tends to reach a state of equilibrium

Were likes or dislikes are balanced within the group

What are the 2 ways to relieve tension in an unbalanced relationship? (Balance Theory)

Psychological changes in individual members

Interpersonal change in the group

What is the Communication Network?

Patterns of information transmission and exchange

That describes who communicates the most, to what extent, and with whom

What is a Centralized Communication Network?

A central member (Hub) collects information, synthesizes it, and sends it back to others

Efficient when tasks are simple

What is a Non-centralized Communication Network?

No Central member

Information is equally distributed to all members

Efficient when tasks are complex

What is Social Tuning?

The tendency for one's actions and evaluations

To become more similar to others

(Birth of a norm)