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45 Cards in this Set

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Who reviews research that involves human subjects?

Research ethical boards

What are three ethical issues in psychological research?

Informed consent


Deception


Debriefing

In psychological research, what is informed consent?

Written agreement to participate in a study by an adult who has been informed



Of the nature of the experiment, and



All the risks that participation may entail

What is deception?

When participants are misled about the true purpose of the study or



The event that will actually transpire

What is debriefing?

Telling the participant the true nature and purpose of a study



Including any use of deception



Should not leave the study with greater distress

What is an observation?

A measurement method that involves watching and recording individuals and group action

What is participant observation?

Watching and recording group behavior



While taking part in the social process

What is overt observation?

Openly watching and recording info without concealing one's research purpose



No ethical issues

What is covert observation?

Watching and recording info on individual and group activities



Without their knowledge

What is the Hawthorne effect?

A change in behavior that occurs when individuals know they are being observed or studied

What is unstructured (qualitative) research?

Reported in narrative style



Collect and analyze nonnumerical data



Describes General qualities and characteristics

What is structured quantitative research?

Classifieds behaviors into categories



Collects and analyzes data in numeric form



Describes precise quantities in amounts

What is interaction process analysis?

It classifies each behavior performed by a group member into 1 of 12 categories



6 pertain to socio-emotional (e.g. complimenting or insulting)



6 pertain to importanttask interactions

What is reliability?

How consistent a measurement is across time

What is interrater liability?

Two observers agree on what their seeing

What is validity?

How well an instrument measures what it supposed to measure

What are self-reports?

Asks respondents to describe their feelings, attitudes, or beliefs



E.g. questionnaires interviews

What is a sociometry?

Graphically and mathematically summarize patterns of inter-member relations

What is social network analysis?

Mathematically and graphically studying the relational structure of groups and networks

What is a case study?

Examines as much information as possible in-dept



And the Dynamics of a single group or individual

What is groupthink?

Loss of rationality caused by strong pressure to conform to groups

What are pros and cons to case study?

Pros:


use bona fide groups



Provide detailed qualitative descriptions



Cons:


The group may be unique (say little about other groups Dynamics)



Researchers interpretation can be bias

What is an experiment?

Cause and effect



Is variable x a cause of variable y?



The only technique to establish causality

In an experiment how does a researcher determine causality?

Ask if the manipulation of the independent variable has an impact on the dependent variable



While controlling the extraneous variables

In an experiment, what is the independent variable?

The cause or conditions manipulated

In an experiment, what is the dependent variable?

The effect measured

In an experiment, what is the extraneous variable?

Extra variables that cause potential errors



Must be controlled

In an experiment, what is internal validity?

Nothing other than the independent variable is affecting the dependent variable



By controlling extraneous variables

In an experiment, what is external validity?

How similar an experiment is to real life situations and people

What are pros and cons to an experiment?

Pro:


Detection of causal relationships between variables (good internal validity)



Con:


Closely monitored but artificial group situation (poor external validity)

What is the correlation method?

Determines the existence and strength of a relationship between two variables



Examines naturally occurring relationships

What is the correlation coefficient (r)?

The degree of relationship ranges from -1 to +1



Sign indicates Direction



Number indicates strength

What are five different types of correlation coefficients?

Perfect negative


Medium negative


No correlation


Medium positive


Perfect positive

What is Bennington College Study?

A correlation study



Researched a persons political stance with their preference group:



(provides individuals with guidelines or standards)

What are pros and cons to correlation method?

Pro:


Easy to do and realistic



Cons:


Correlation doesn't tell causal Direction of the relationship



They only indicate if two variables are related



E.g. bi-directional causality and third variable

What are 5 major theoretical perspectives?

Motivational and emotional



Behavioral



Systems



Cognitive



Biological

What are motivational and emotional perspectives?

Motivation refers to the force that energizes and directs Behavior (needs wants drives)



Emotions refer to the subjective state of positive or negative affect

What is behaviorism?

Organisms acquire new responses to environmental stimuli through conditioning (learning)



Such as operational conditioning

What is social exchange theory?

Individuals seek out relationships/groups that offer them many rewards while exacting few cost



Commitment depends on:


Satisfaction


Level of investment in the group


Quality of alternatives to the group

What is the systems theory perspective?

Assumes that groups are systems



Collections of individual units that combine to form an integrated complex whole

What is the input-process-output model of productivity?

Input factor:


Individual level (E.g. skills, personality)


Group level (e.g. stucture)


Environmental level (e.g. stress)



Processes are group interaction processes



Outcome:


Performance outcomes (e.g. products, decisions)


Other outcomes (e.g. satisfaction)

What is the cognitive perspective?

Considers how groups process information



(I.e. acquire, organize, and integrate information)

What is outgroup homogeneity effect?

See out group members as very similar to another



While seeing in group members as more diverse

What is the biological perspective?

Recognizes group members are living creatures, whose responses are often shaped



By biological, biochemical, and genetic characteristics

What is evolutionary psychology?

Assumes that reoccurring Behavior stem from adaptive action and are preserved over time by natural selection