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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Reptile orders
-Saurians (lizards)
-Serpentes (snakes)
-Sphenodontia (some new zealand animal)
Important reptile generalities for maintenance
-fluid balance
-important aspects for cage design
-heat source
-humidity control
-water quality
-change body temperature in relation to the environment
Because reptiles are poikilothermic how do they change body temperature?
-alter location
-important temperature considerations
-critical high
-most require daily cooling
-some require seasonal cooling
Where is seasonal cooling important?
-zoos for breeding purposes
-effects of Sub-optimal temp
-dec activity
-impaired physiological processes (digestive enzymes, antibody production)
-increased susceptibility to infection and dysecdysis
-problematic shedding
-acute effects
-important needs for heat sources
-primary and secondary sources
-thermal gradient
-thermal gradient facts
-vary b/n spp
-mid 80s-low 100s
-within a single cage
-from day to night
Primary heat source
-reasons for use
-background temp
-low point of POTZ

-radiant heat (ceramic bulbs, tiles, under cage heating)
-warm air
-light bulbs (poor source)
-aquarium heater
Secondary heat source
-reasons for use
-basking spot
-increased day temps

-hot rocks (no good, thermal burns)
-light bulbs (UV B source, 40-60 W)
Important characteristics for heat sources
-most spp need diurnal gradient
-must be appropriate for each spp (arboreal, terrestrial, subterranean)
-good monitoring
Humidity controls
-large shallow water bowls
-daily misting
-live plants/substrate
-drip systems
Effects of humidity being too high
-environment too wet
-low ventilation
-live plants
What can occur if the reptile environment becomes to wet?
-blister disease
How to tell if there is a lot of humidity?
-water marks on glass
Effects of live plants in high humidity
-unwanted insects
What can happen if humidity is too low?
-respiratory probs
-sub-clinical dehydration (kidney disease)
-affected reproduction
Species requiring good ventilation
-how can this be done

-use screen cages
Interaction between ventilation and humidity
-dec. ventilation --> inc. humidity
-all reptiles need proper ventilation
-enclosures shouldn't smell stagnant
-humidity should not build up on glass
-fans may be employed
-importance of photoperiod
light and temperature are important for:
-gonadal development
-approx what is an optimal photoperiod
-12 hrs light
-12 hrs dark
-reasons lighting considerations are important
-ultraviolet source
-heat source
-lighting used for photoperiods
-primary --> fluorescent lights

-secondary --> basking lights
Circadian lighting
Circannual lighting
Circadian and circannual photo periods are an important consideration for:
-successful breeding
Typical summer photoperiod
-15 hrs light
-9 hrs dark
Reason lizards need ultraviolet light source
-UV B ---> Vit D3 metabolism
UV light source
-optimal wavelength
-290-320 nm
How often should UV lights be replaced?
-every 6 months
How far from the animl should UV lights be placed?
12-18 inches
At what % of UV light can the pet get sunburn?
Hazards of UV light
-nocturnal spp.
-possibly don't need
How else can an animal get UV light?
-direct sun exposure
Temperature range for most basking areas
Effect of direct access to lighting
-direct injury

-basking animals associate heat and light
Approximate humidity level that is satisfactory for most species
Effects of humidity extremes
-dysecdysis (too low)

-inc. environmental pathogens (too high)
-natural looking enclosure
-provide security
-provide humidity
-difficult to clean
Wood shavings vs. Cypress mulch
Wood shavings
-cedar --> toxic
-can get GI & teeth problems

Cypress mulch
-works well
-should be purchased in bulk
-can cause GI problems
-good for amphibians
-various types
-provide humidity
-biological filter
-can mix some types with top soil or mulch
Top Soil
-sterile from garden center
-mack sure they're secured
-lava rock --> abrasive (don't use
-small pebbles can be eaten
-irritant (silica)
-can cause GI block
-hard to clean
-caution when using Calcium sand
Species that need sand substrate
-sand skinks
-sand boas
One of the best substrates for reptile enclosures
-some may be toxic
-can introduce pests
-prefers wedging in tight objects
Reasons for poor water quality
-stagnant water --> Aeromonas sp. (bacteria)
-reptiles defecate in water
-temperature is important
Drinking water
-water quality info
-change frequently
-use proper disinfectants
-bowls, ponds, mist, drip
Maintaining water quality in a large pond
-drain and disinfect daily
Maintaining water quality in an aquarium tank
-establish a nitrogen cycle
-mechanical and biological filtration
Optimal water temperature
-75-80F for large ponds
-reptiles won't bathe in cold water
Quarantine length for reptiles
-at least 60-120 days
Reasons for quarantine
-physical exam
-biological sampling (blood, feces)
-limit introduction of infectious disease
-observe new animal
-acclimate to new environment/food