Internal Environment Essay

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In order to survive under several environmental influences, animals must possess biological mechanisms which enable them to regulate and maintain their internal environment. Temperature is one of abiotic factors that are inexorably linked to every animal’s physiological functions since it is considered a strong source of selective pressure on animals (Miller, 2010). Animals are categorized into thermoregulators and thermoconformers based on their mechanisms to maintain their internal environment. Thermoregulators indicates animals with an ability to keep their body temperature within a certain tolerable range while thermoconformers are animals whose body temperature conform to the changes of external temperature. Animals are also classified …show more content…
Enzymes speed up the rates of most biochemical reactions by helping reactants interact with each other. Since enzymes are highly specific for a specific reaction, they only catalyze one or a few types of reaction. One of important enzymes in human body and many other animals is amylase that hydrolyzes starch, a major part of human diet for many people in the world. There is a variety of amylase produced from many sources in our body such as salivary glands in the mouth, pancreas cells, and small intestines (Scott, 2014). Amylase initiates the breakdown of starch which is a common plant polysaccharide composed of repeating glucose monomers into smaller subunits (Campbell et al, 2008). There are many environmental and ecological factors that strongly affect the enzymatic activities within a living organisms. Temperature is a factor related directly to physiological processes as well as enzymatic activities of animals. Since temperature and the survival of an organism are strongly linked to each other, it is very important to understand how and why all living organisms are considerably affected by temperature. Unlike endotherms such as humans, daphnia and goldfish are perfect examples of ectotherms which rely mainly on environmental sources of heat to warm their bodies. They are also scientifically classified as thermoconformers since their bodies vary with external changes of the environment. Daphnia is a small planktonic arthropod living in most types of freshwater (Scott, 2014). Its transparent exoskeleton provides a remarkable look inside its body, including its heart. Similar to daphnia, goldfish is often chosen for experimental purposes since they exhibit obvious sensitivities to the changes in temperature which directly affect their metabolic

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