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59 Cards in this Set

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Clinical Signs of a sick bird
“Sick Bird Syndrome”
-fluffed and ruffled
-partially closed eyes
-frequent blinking
-head tucked under wings
-sitting on the bottom of the cage
-hunched posture
-dyspnea
-inactive
-anorexic
Hands off examination
-observe the bird, cage and contents before handling
-obtain history (compare to old for changes)
-oxygen cage if looking dyspneic
-quick physical exam
Major things to look at in a quick physical exam
-mouth
-wings
-palpate abdomen
-gross abnormalities
Wing droop
-unilateral vs. bilateral
-unilateral: suggestive of trauma to wing

-bilateral: suggestive of “Sick Bird Syndrome”
Droppings
-sight evaluations
-give you an idea if a renal or GI problem is present
If a bird is dyspneic, what should be done?
-place into an oxygen cage in order to stabilize
-place an air sac tube
Dyspnea
-signs
-excessive shest motion
-open-mouth breathing
-extended neck
-tachypnea
-head bob/tail bob
-wings extended away from body
What should not be done to dyspneic appearing birds that come into your practice?
-do not restrain
Air sac tube
-use
-birds with upper airway obstructions
Air sac tube
-placed in which air sacs
-caudal thoracic
-abdominal
Hemorrhage
-due to
-damaged nails
-blood feathers
-skin wounds
-other traums: fractures, shot
Bird
-total blood volume
-approx 10%
Bird
-fatal amount of blood loss
-20%
Hemorrhage
-treatments
-silver nitrate pencillin
-ferric chloride
-wound powder/flour
-sustained pressure
-superglue
-pull blood feathers
-antibiotics
Fractures
-general treatment
Temporary splinting
-figure 8 bandage
-tape splint
Figure 8 bandage
-purpose
-stabilize the bones below the humerus
Seizures
-due to
-hypocalcemia
-hypoglycemia
-epilepsy
-possibly toxins
Seizures from hypocalcemia
-common in
-African Grey
Seizures from hypoglycemia
-common in
-neonates
-raptors
Epilepsy
-treatment
-diazepam
-midazolam
Physical diagnosis depends on:
-restraint
-physical examination
Necessary examination supplies
-towel
-gloves
-gram scale (& larger)
-mouth specula
-light source
-magnifying loupe
Physical restraint of a bird
-first goal
-why?
-restrain the talons
-restrain head

-ensures the safety of the handlers, medical staff, and patient
Physical restraint
-important things to make sure of
-keep the sternum unrestricted
-avoid laying the bird on its back (body weight)
Things to look at in the mouth
-glottis
-CRT
-masses
-hemorrhages
What can palpating the keel tell you about a disease?
-thin keel = chronic disease
-keel in good shape = more of an acute disease
Diagnostic tests that may be run in critical care
Most immediate if possible:
-hematology (PCV, WBC, TP) if possible
-serum chemistry if possible

Others:
-radiology
-parasitology
-bacteriology
-toxicology
-others
General supportive care
-clean, quiet environment
-minimize stress
-hospital cage
-oxygen
-warmth
-low perches
-easily accessible food
Temperatures for supportive care
-Adults = 85-90F

-Babies = 94F
How to assess dehydration
-history
-turgor/refill of wing vein
-sunken eyes
-tacky mucous membranes
-skin tent and sliding
-PCV, TP, BUN
How to estimate fluid deficit
Fluid deficit = dehydration x BW (g)
Maintenance fluid
50 mL/kg/day
How to replace fluid deficit
-replace half within 12-24 hrs
-give remainder over next 24-48 hrs with maintenance
Routes of fluid administration
-oral
-subcutaneous
-intravenous
-intraosseous
Oral fluid administration
-indications
-mild dehydration
-maintenance
-pedialyte/Gatorade
Oral fluid administration
-contraindications
-laterally recumbent
-seizure
-regurgitating
-GI stasis
Subcutaneous fluid administration
-indications
-mild dehydration (poor peripheral circulation)
-maintenance
Subcutaneous fluid administration
-contraindications
-severe dehydration
-hypoproteinemia
Intravenous fluid administration
-indications
-severe dehydration
-shock
-bolus/CRI
Intravenous fluid administration
-accessible veins
-ulnar
-medial metatarsal
-jugular
Intraosseous fluid administration
-indications
-veins too collapsed from dehydration
Intraosseous fluid administration
-locations of administration
-ulna
-tibiotarsus
Intraosseous fluid administration
-where not to place the catheter
-pneumatic bones (humerus, femur, etc.)
-will flow to air sacs
Fluid choices
-crystalloids
-colloids
-blood
Crystalloid fluid
-type
-LRS
Colloid fluids
-type
-hetastarch
-oxyglobin
Blood transfusion
-when to consider
-PCV < 15%
Blood transfusion
-considerations
-try to get homologous blood
-collect with anticoagulants or heparin
Blood transfusion
-routes of administration
-IV
-IO
Antibiotics
-indication
-debilitated birds to control primary infections or prophylactically prevent secondary infections
Antibiotics
-drugs to use
-broad spectrums until c/s results are available
Antibiotic treatment for Chlamydophila
-Doxycycline
“Other” drugs given to birds
-analgesics
-vitamin B
-Calcium
-glucose
-others
Vitamin B
-indications
-anorexia
-anemia
Main analgesic used
-butorphanol
Why is nutritional support so important?
-very high metabolic rate
Nutrition
-when do birds get presented for help?
-several days of anorexia
What is a very important part of nutritional support?
-weighing
Gavage feeding
-general amount
-3-5% body weight