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59 Cards in this Set

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Depends on size and spp.
-ventilated burlap or cotton bag (pillow case)
-large plastic box or garbage can with air holes
-plastic box with a water level that covers the animals feet (semi-aquatic)
-dechlorinated water to cover the animal (aquatic)

Keep old bedding for fecal and urine tests
-reptiles aren't defecating daily like cats and dogs
How does evaluation of the patient start?
Very basic of physical exam
Ways to handle properly
-turtles can bite (hold butt)
-snakes can bite (control head)
-can control lizards with Vaso-vagal effect
-tail autonomy of lizards
Physical exam
-basic approach
-by body system
-tip of the head to tip of the tail

*pick one method and stick with it
Vital signs to measure
-pulse/heart rate
-respiratory rate and efforts
What is an important objective parameter of the physical exam
-abnormalities that can be found on PE
-missing scales
-how to evaluate the head
-palpate skull ---> deformities
-eyes ----> swelling, redness
-ear ----> tympanum
-nostrils ----> clear
-mouth ----> teeth, mucous membranes, tongue
-mouth rot
-evaluation of the musculoskeletal system
-compare to contralateral
-look for swelling/redness
-limbs and joints ---->range or motion & strength
-digital necrosis
-uro-genital evaluation
-stool evaluation
-vent (cloaca)
-rectal exam
-look for prolapses
-sex determination
Dimorphic spp
-femoral pores
-hemipene bulge
-eye color

Blunt probing for animals that don't show sexual dimorphism

*there are medical conditions related to sex (ex: eggbound females)
Sex determination in tortoise
-concavity in the male plastron for mounting females
Blood samples
-evaluate what?
-Plasma enzymes
Blood sample collection
-safe amount to collect
0.5-0.8% of body weight

* very small amount ---> hard to collect
Blood collection
-how to collect samples
-use heparin over EDTA

*EDTA can cause hemolysis in some species (chelonians)
Blood collection
-associated pain (select method that causes least amount of pain)
-risk of bacterial infection (aseptic technique)
How should blood samples be evaluated?
-fresh blood smear
Venipuncture in lizards
-ventral coccygeal/tail v.

-cardiac ----> euthanasia
Venipuncture in snakes
-ventral tail v.

Cardiac venipuncture
-large blood volume provided
Cardiac venipuncture
-heart location in snakes
-cranial 1/3
-dorsal position
Cardiac venipuncture
-heart localization method
-visual inspection or palpation
Cardiac venipuncture
-22-25 gauge needle inserted under scale
Venipuncture in Chelonians
-Jugular v.
-Subcarapacial v. (lymph dilution)
-Dorsal coccygeal v. (lymph dilution)
-Brachial v.
-Postoccipital venous plexus
Reptile injection sites
-subcutaneous (SC)
-intracoelomic (ICe)

Medication and Sedation
-SC & IM (epaxial/cranial body) --> snakes and lizards
-SC & IM (front legs) ---> lizards and chelonians
Reptile Fluid Support
-important questions
-what fluids do I use? (type)
-how much do I give? (rate)
-where do I give it? (route)
Fluid support
-normal range
-20-30 ml/kg/day

***no universal rate for reptiles (approx. 1/3 mammalian rate)
Fluid support
-Oral (PO)
-Subcutaneous (SC)
-Intracoelomic (ICe)
-Intraosseous (IO)
-Intravenous (IV)
Oral fluid administration
-mild absorption
Oral fluid administration
-physiological route of fluid absorption
-can stimulate GI motility
Oral fluid administration
-backflow----> aspiration in cold, debilitated animals
Oral fluid administration
-how much
2-3% of body weight
Oral fluid administration
-esophageal/stomach tube
-syringe into mouth

*careful to not have regurgitation and aspiration
Subcutaneous fluid administration
-why rarely used
-limited subcutaneous space
-poor vascularization
-highly variable absorption rates
Subcutaneous fluid administration
-possibly ok for mild dehydration
Subcutaneous fluid administration
-how to administer
-lateral body wall
-chelonians = brachial or inguinal
Subcutaneous fluid administration
-beware of high skin tension (chameleons) and fragile skin (geckos)

***check the bubble
Intracoelomic fluids
-moderate dehydration

-avoids pressure necrosis from SC administration
Intracoelomic fluids
-reason for good efficacy
-coelomic membrane & serosal surfaces are highly absorptive
Intracoelomic fluids
-No diaphragm
-can flood in and compress the lungs/air sacs
Intraosseous fluids
-severe dehydration
-debilitated reptile
Intraosseous fluids
-location for administration
-distal femur (lizards)
-proximal tibia (lizards & chelonians)
Intraosseous fluids
-highly invasive

*beware of MBD
Most effective route of hydration
Intravenous fluids
-most useful for:
Intravenous fluids
-requires surgical cutdown
-suture in place
Intravenous fluids
-locations for placement
-tail vein (lizards, no cutdown)
-jugular (all reptiles)
-cephalic (lizards)
Common diagnostic procedures with reptiles
-lung/tracheal wash
Shell rot
-common in what animals
-aquatic app
Shell rot
-ways to diagnose
-skin smears
Reptile anesthesia
-reasons why dificult
-missing data on species physiology and drugs
-diving reflex
-poor control of the cardiovascular system (limited IV access)
Why is the diving reflex a problem in reptile anesthesia?
-reptiles can hold their breath for long periods of time
How to determine state of anesthesia in a reptile?
-determine the patient's norms before anesthesia
-relaxation progresses from cranial to caudal, then recovery is in reverse
-righting reflex
-corneal reflex
-tongue reflex
Early stages of anesthesia
-righting reflex
-response to stimuli
What is important to provide reptiles who are under anesthesia?
active respiration (no diaphragm)
Anesthetic monitoring
-response to stimuli
-respiratory rate
-heart rate: doppler, ECG, pulse oximeter
Anesthesia recovery
-keep intubated and place on room air until spontaneous respirations occur and reflexes return

*Recovery can be slow
*make sure the animal is put onto room air for recovery, because O2 will keep them asleep