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124 Cards in this Set

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And Styx, Ocean’s daughter, made love with Pallas and bore Envy (Zelos) in her house and beautiful Victory (Nikê) and Strength (Kratos) and Force (Biê)- notable children she bore, and they have no house apart from Zeus, no dwelling or path except where the god leads them, and they dwell forever with deep-thundering Zeus.

Hesiod, Theogony

For this was how Styx, Ocean’s daughter, made her decision on that fateful day when the lord of lighting summoned the gods to the slopes of Olympos. He told them that he would not deprive of anyone of rights and honors, who fought along with him against the Titans . Or if they had no rights under Kronos before, he would promote them to rights and honors (timê) as was just.

Hesiod, Thegony

If ever a god who lives on snowcapped Olympos pours a libation of this (water of Styx) and breaks his oath, he lies a full year without any breath, not a taste of ambrosia, not a sip of nectar comes to his lips, but he lies breathless and speechless on a blanketed bed, an evil coma upon him. But when the long year brings this disease to an end, another more difficult trial is in store, Nine years of exile from the everlasting gods, no converse in council or at their feasts for nine full years. In the tenth year finally he rejoins the Immortals in their homes on Olympos. Upon this the gods swear, the primordial, imperishable water of Styx.

Hesiod, Thegony

When their father Ouranos first grew angry with Obriareos, Cottos, and Gyges, he came down hard on them. Indignant because of their arrogant maleness, their looks, and their bulk, he made them live underground.

Hesiod, Thegony

Our minds are bent therefore, and our wills fixed on preserving your power through the horror of war.

Hesiod, Thegony

A god whose hands were like engines of war, whose feet never gave out, from whose shoulders grew the hundred heads of a frightful dragon flickering dusky tongues, and the hollow eye sockets in the eerie heads sent out fiery rays, and each head burned with flame as it glared. And there were voices in each of these frightful heads, a phantasmagoria of unspeakable sound, sometimes sounds that gods understood, sometimes the sound of a spirited bull, bellowing and snorting, or the uninhibited shameless roar of a lion, or a whistle hissing through long ridges and hills

Hesiod, Thegony

So the blessed gods had done a hard piece of work, settled by force (biê) the question of rights with the Titans. Then at Gaia’s suggestion they pressed broad-browed Zeus, the Olympian, to be their king and rule the Immortals. And so Zeus dealt out their privileges and rights (timê).

Hesiod Thogony

And with his own arms Achilles reached for Patroclus, but could not take him, and the spirit (psuchê) went underground, like vapour, with a thin cry, and Achilles was amazed, staring: “Oh wonder! Even in the house of Hades there is left something, a spirit and an image , (psuchê and eidôlon) but there is no mind in it.

Homer, Illiad

Human generations are like leaves in their seasons. The wind blows them to the ground, but the tree sprouts new ones when spring comes again. Men too. Their generations come and go.

Homer, Illiad

Diomedes knew this was a weakling goddess, not one of those who control human warfare- no Athena, no Ares here, who demolishes cities- And when he caught up to her in the mêlée, he pounced at her with his spear and, thrusting, nicked her on her delicate wrist, the blade piercing her skin through the ambrosial robe that the Graces themselves made for her. The cut was just above the palm, and the goddess’ immortal blood (ambroton haima) oozed out, or rather, the ichor that flows in the blessed gods’ veins. For they eat no bread and drink no wine. For this reason they are called bloodless and therefore deathless (athanatoi) as well.

Homer, Illiad

I’ll give her back, if that’s what’s best. I don’t want to see the army destroyed like this. But I want another prize (geras) ready for me right away. I’m not going to be the only Greek without a prize (agerastos), it wouldn’t be right. And you all see where mine is going.

Homer, Illiad

I’ve raided twelve cities with our shipsand eleven on foot in the fertile Troad, looted them all, brought back heirlooms By the ton, and handed it all over To Atreus’ son (Agamemnon), who hung back in campRaking it in and distributing damn little. What the others did get they at least got to keep.They all have their prizes (gera), everyone but meI’m the only Greek from whom he took something back.

Homer, Illiad

It’s for you, dog face, for your precious pleasure-And Menelaus’ honor (timê)- that we came here,A fact you don’t have the decency even to mention!And now you are threatening to take away my prize (geras)That I sweated for and the Greeks gave me.I never get a prize equal to yours when the army captures one of the Trojan strongholds.


Mother, since you gave me life (390)if only for a while—Olympian Zeus, high thunderer, should give me due honour (timê). But he doesn’t grant me even slight respect. For wide-ruling Agamemnon, Atreus’ son, has shamed me (not given timê), has taken away my prize (geras), appropriated it for his own use.


Then let us wrap the bones in fat and keep themIn a golden bowl, until I am hidden in Hades.You need not labor over a huge barrow for him,But only what is seemly. Later the AchaeansCan build it broad and high, all of you still leftAmid our thwarted ships when I am gone.


The first to rise was Eumelus, son of Admetus, who surpassed all in horsemanship. After him rose Diomedes, strong son of Tydeus, and yoked the Trojan horses which he had taken by force from Aeneas. Next rose fair-haired Menelaus, and yoked his swift horses. Fourth to prepare his flowing maned horses was Antilochus, glorious son of high-hearted king Nestor….and fifth in order Meriones got his horses ready.


I think that your horses are the slowest, and that your work will be harder. The horses of these men are faster, but they do not know better than you how to plan (i.e how to use mêtis). Remember, then, my dear boy, always to have your plan in mind so that the prizes (aethla) will not elude you. The woodcutter is far better with skill (mêtis) than with brute force (Biê); it is with skill that the pilot holds his swift ship on course though buffeted by winds on the wine-colored sea. Thus too by skill (mêtis) one charioteer passes another.


Ajax, although you are the best in abuse and stupidity, you are the worst of the Argives with that donkey’s brain of yours. Now put your money where your mouth is and bet me a tripod-cauldron. We’ll have Agamemnon, son of Atreus, hold the bet…


The Best Man has come in last, but let’s give him a prize as he deserves, the second prize- the first should go to Diomedes.


Achilles, I will be really angry (cholos) with you, if you do as you suggest. You mean to take my prize (aethlon) away, thinking that, even though Eumelos is a wretched driver, he is a good man. Well, he ought to have prayed to the gods, and then he would not have been last. If he is so dear to you and such a good friend, then there is plenty of gold in your tent, and bronze and sheep, and women and horses. From those, give him a prize, even better than mine, and the Achaeans will applaud you, but I will not give up the mare, and if anyone wanter her he will have to fight me to get her.


I am much younger than you and you are my elder and better…I will give you the mare which I won.


Antilochos, although I was angry I will now give way to you, since you were not flighty or lightheaded before now. Your youth got the better of your brain. You will not play tricks on your betters another time. Another man might not have won me over, but you have suffered much and worked hard for my sake, as have your noble father and your brother. Therefore I shall be swayed by your supplication, and I will even give you the mare, although she is mine, so that all may see and know that my heart is never arrogant and stubborn.


"Son of Laertes and seed of Zeus, resourcefull Odysseus: lift me or I will lift you. All success shall be as Zeus gives it." …But no forgetting his craft (metis) Odysseus caught him with a stroke behind the hollow of the knee, and unnerved the tendons, and threw him over backward..


Wrestle no more now! Don’t wear yourselves out and get hurt! You are both winners. Go off and divide the prizes and let the rest of the Achaians compete.


As they were making their final sprint for the prize, Ajax slipped and fell (Athena tripped him) where dung was scattered on the ground from bellowing oxen, and he got the stuff in his mouth and up his nose. So Odysseus took away the mixing bowl, because he finished first, and the ox went to Ajax. He stood with his hands on the horns of the ox, spitting out dung, and said to the Argives: “Aw sh*t! That goddess tripped me, that goddess who always stood by Odysseus and cared for him like a mother.”


King Agamemnon, since we all know that you surpass all others and are the best by far of spear-throwers, take the cauldron, but let us give the spear to Meriones, if you agree.


Tell me, Muse, who then was best of those menand their horses, who followed with the sons of Atreus.The best by far were the horses of the son of Pheres, whom Eumelos drove, swift-footed, like birds, with the same hair, the same age, their backs, he kept even (as though) with a leveling line.These Apollo of the Silver Bow reared in Pereia,both mares, and he brought the panic of Ares. And of men, by far the best was Telamonian Ajax, as long as Achilles was raging. For he (Achilles) was by far the strongest, as were the horses, who used to carry the blameless son of Peleus.


Won’t you too, sir, try your hand at some contest, that is, if you know any, but you have the look of an athlete to me. There is no greater fame (kleos) for a man than that which he wins with his footwork or the skill of his hands.

Odyssey, Homer

Laodamas, Why do you young chaps mock me with such an invitation? My heart is more set on grief than games, for I have toiled long and suffered much. I am here in your gathering only as a suppliant to get my passage home (nostos) from your king and your people


My mother Thetis the goddess of the silver feet tells me I carry two sorts of destiny toward the day of my death.If I stay here and fight beside the city of the Trojans,My return home (nostos) is gone, but my glory will be everlasting (kleos aphthiton);But if I return home (nostos) to the beloved land of my fathers, the excellence of my glory (kleos) is gone, but there will be a long life left for me, and my end in death will not come to me quickly.


As I see it, stranger, you’re no good at sports like a real man. You remind me of a master peddling sailor, one who trades from port to port with thoughts for nothing but cargoes and loads and especially for profits. You’re no athlete.


You’re no gentleman! It is so true that the Gods do not give total grace, a complete endowment of both beauty and wit to all men alike. There will be one man who is less than average in build, and the gods will so crown his words with a flower of beauty and all who hear him are moved….Another man will be as handsome as the Gods, yet will lack that strand of charm twined into his words. Take yourself for example: a masterpiece in body which not even a god could improve, but empty in the head.


Now then, young sports, match this throw, and as soon as you do, I’ll throw another even longer. For the rest, let anyone whose spirit or temper prompts him step out and take me on in boxing or wrestling or foot-racing, or whatever….I fear only that in the footraces some of the Phaeacians may beat me, for I have been shamefully mauled by constant waves on a bare ship. The joints of my knees are therefore feeble.


Hear me, Goddess, be kind to me and come with extra strength for my feet.” So he prayed, and Pallas Athena heard him, and lightened his limbs, feet, and arms too…So Odysseus took away the mixing bowl, because he finished first.


Friends, you all know well the truth of what I say, that still the gods continue to favor the older men. Look here, Ajax is older than I, if only by a little, but Odysseus is out of another age and truly one of the ancients. But his old age is, as they say, a lusty one. I don’t think any Achaian could match his speed, except Achilles.


Three times his power flagged— but his hopes ran high, he’d string his father’s bow and shoot through every iron and now, struggling with all his might for the fourth time, he would have strung the bow, but Odysseus shook his head and stopped him short despite his tensing zeal.


Zeus, and you other immortals, grant that this boy, who is my son, may be as I am, pre-eminent among the Trojans, great in strength, as I am, and rule strongly over Troy; and some day, let them say of him: He is better by far than his father.


Once Odysseus handled the great bow and scanned every inch, then, like an expert singer at lyre and song— who strains a string to a new peg with ease..so with his virtuoso ease Odysseus strung his mighty bow. Quickly his right hand plucked the string to test its pitch and under his touch it sang out clear and sharp as a swallow’s cry.


Hieron holds the sceptre of justice in sheep-rich SicilyWhere he chooses for himself the finest fruits Of every kind of excellence.His glory gleams in the best of poetry and music,Of the kind that we men often compose in playAt his hospitable table.

Pindar, Olympian

His fame (Hieron’s) shines out over the landOf fine men founded by Lydian Pelops

Pindar, Olympian

There are indeed many wonders, And it may be that in men’s talkStories (muthoi) are embroidered beyond the truth (alathe),And so deceive us with their elaborate lies (pseudea)Since the beguiling charm of wordsThe source of all sweet pleasures for men (Kharis)Adds lustre (timê) and veracity to the unbelievable.The days to come will be the wises judge of that,But it is proper that a man should speak well of the gods;Thus he is less likely to incur blame.

Pindar, Olympian

Immediately, an ill intentioned neighbor secretly spread the tale abroadThat the guests had taken a knife and dismembered you,And had thrown your limbs into waterAs it boiled fiercely over the fire;And then at table, during the final course,They shared your flesh and ate it.As for me, I cannot call any of the blessed gods a cannibal.I stand aside;The slanderous seldom win themselves profit.

Pindar, Olympian

This is the life of everlasting weariness he lives,One labor following another,Because for his feast he stole from the gods nectar and ambrosia they gave to make him immortalAnd served it to his drinking companions.If a man hopes his deeds will escape the gods’ notice He is mistaken.

Olympian -- Tantalus Pindar Version

If the delightful gifts of Cypris can give rise to gratitude,Then come, shackle the bronze spear of Oenomaos,Send me on the swiftest chariots of Elis,And bring me the power to be victorious

Olympian -- Pelops race Pindar Version

And now he luxuriates in splendid blood offeringsAs he reclines beside the ford of AlpheusHis tomb beside his altar is well tended, Thronged about by many a stranger.


Do ut des

I give in order that you give

The fame which stems from Pelops’ games at OlympiaIs visible from afar – the games where The contest is for fleetness of footAnd daring deeds of strength pushed to the limit.For the rest of his days the victor enjoys honey-sweet tranquility,As far that is, as the games can provide it;(because of his aethlon)The highest good for every mortalIs indeed that which comes to him day by day



Military Victory Monuments

Temple of Hera (year)

650 BCE

Temple of Zeus (years)

470-457 BCE

When the Eleans made sacrifices, as their law requires, the sacrificial offerings were laid ready on the altar, but the fire was not yet applied. The runners were placed a stade (200m) from the altar, before which a priest as judge, stood with a torch. The winner kindled the offering and went forth as Olympic victor.

philostratus, gymnasticus

They ran by these springs, pursuer and pursued-A great man out in front, a far greater behind-And they ran all out. This was not a race For such a prize as athletes compete for,An oxhide or animal for sacrifice, but a raceFor the soul (psyche) of Hector, breaker of horses.Just as champion horses wheeling round the course,Hooves flying, pouring it on in a race for a prize- A woman or a tripod- at a hero’s funeral games,Just so the heroes circled Priam’s city three time runningWhile all the gods looked on.


After the Eleans had sacrificed, however, the other Greek delegates who came to participate in the celebration must also make sacrifice. In order that their arrival might not take place without ceremonial, the runners ran a furlong away from the altar, as if to invite the Hellenes, and returned again to the same point, as though to announce that Hellas came gladly.

gymnasticus, the diaulos

Couriers were accustomed to go from Arcadia to Hellas as heralds of war, and they were required not to ride, but to complete the course on foot. The fact that in the brief course of a day they always covered as many stades as the distance race comprises, made them distance runners and trained them for war.


As a signal to resume war indicating that the truce of god has passed and one needs weapons. Contest of prizes is over and the trumpet of Enyalios (Ares) calls youths to arms.


Pheidippides runs from Athens to Sparta

Herodotus Story

Thersippus or Eucles ran from Marathon to Athens to declare victory then died

Plutarch story


Starting Gate


Starting line

For the sprinters move their legs for the quick course, as though winged by their hands.


Wrestling introduced in _____ ?

708 BCE


Starting position


Dug up place




Dustless victory

That wrestling and the Pankration were invented for their utility in war is proved in the first place by the feat of arms at Marathon which was so performed by Athenians that it seemed like a wrestling match.And at Thermopylae, where the Lacedaemonians fought often with their bare hands, when their swords and lances were broken.


The Eleans look upon wrestling as the test of strength and call it “painful,” not merely because of the intricate holds in wrestling, which require a supple and nimble body, but also on account of the three fold contest prescribed among them, so many falls being required.


Then up rose AjaxAnd wily Odysseus, who knew all the tricks.They girded themselves, stepped to the middleAnd took their stance, gripping each otherLike crisscrossing rafters set in the gableOf a high roof built to withstand the wind.Their backs creaked under the strainOf their strong intertwined arms. SweatPoured down their bodies, and bloody weltsRose up on their shoulders and ribsAs they struggled to win the exquisite cauldron.


No need to continue and wear yourselves out.You’re both winners. Take equal prizes and go your way, so others can compete.


While they consider it extra-ordinary to award the crown in the pankration and in boxing without a contest, they do not refuse it to the wrestler. For the rules of the game expressly permit such a victory only in the torturous and “painful” wrestling match… Wrestling is the same in the trial as the actual contest.. Therefore the Eleans award the wreathe to the best training – indeed, for training alone.






Boxing was introduced in _______.

688 BCE


Boxing gloves


Harder "himantes"

Anybody want the cup as his prize?Because no Greek alive is going to beat me in boxing and lead away this mule.I’m the best there is. Isn’t it enough I come up short in war? A man can’t be good at everything. But let me tell you this, and it’s a sure thing: Anybody fights me,I’ll bust him wide open and crush his bones.Better have his next of kin standing byTo carry him out when I’m through with him.


The ancient Lacedaemonians (Spartans) boxed for the following reason: they had no helmets, and they considered that fighting with such was not according to the customs of the country, but the shield took the place of the helmet if one understood how to carry it. In order then to parry blows and to withstand them, they practiced boxing and sought in this manner to harden the face. In the course of time, they gave up boxing and the pankration because they considered it disgraceful to participate in contests, in which, if one person should yield, Sparta would be open to the reproach of cowardice.



All power

Pankration introduced in _______.

648 BCE

Perfect Pankratist- better wrestler than the boxer, better boxer than the wrestler


Arrichion, the Pankratist, who had already been victor at two Olympiads, was competing for the wreath in the following Olympiad (564 BCE), and was on the point of declaring himself vanquished but was inspired with a desire (eros) for death (thanatos) by Euryxias, the gymnast, when he shouted, “What a beautiful memorial – ‘he did not surrender at Olympia.’”


For the death of men in the hour of their triumph is not, as Aesop used to say, most grievous, but most blessed, since it puts in safe keeping their enjoyment of their blessings and leaves no room for change of fortune. Therefore the Spartan's advice was better, who, when he greeted Diagoras, the Olympian victor, who had lived to see his sons crowned at Olympia, and the sons of his sons and daughters, said: "Die now, Diagoras; you cannot ascend to Olympus.


Diaulos was introduced in ______.

724 BCE

Dolichos was introduced in ______.

720 BCE

Hoplitodromos was introduced in _______.

520 BCE

Penathalon introduced in _____.

708 BCE

He who enters the Pentathlon ought to be heavy rather than light and light rather than heavy.


In youth, beauty lies in the possession of a body capable of enduring all kinds of labors, both in the racecourse and in bodily strength, and the youth himself is a pleasant delight to look at. It is for this reason that Pentathletes are the most beautiful. They are naturally adapted for exertion of the body and swiftness of foot.






Springing up with cloak and all, he took a discus,Broad and much bigger and heavier that the ones the Phaeacians threw. He whirled it around and shot it from his strong hand….It flew past the marks of all, speeding quickly from his hand. Athena measured it, similar in body to a man, she spoke out:“Even a blind man, stranger, could make out this mark by feeling it, since it is not mingled at all the crowd, but is by far the first.”


A balbis has been separated off; it is small and adequate only for a single standing man, and even then it holds back only the rear and the right leg (the back is bending forward) with the weight on the left leg reduced, for it is necessary that this leg is straightened and advanced together with the right arm. The attitude of the man holding the diskos must be that he turn his head to the right and bend over so far that he can see his side, and to throw he must draw himself up and put his whole right side into the throw.



Jumping weights


Leather strap on javelin


4-Horse Chariot Race


Turning point in chariot race


Horseback race

Keles was introduced in _______.

648 BCE


Two horse chariot race

Synoris was introduced in _______.

408 BCE


Mule cart race


Ride and run

Kalpe and Apene both lasted between these years: _______.

500 - 444 BCE

But whoever puts his trust in his horses and chariot and recklessly turns wide coming and going, his horses drift out of the course and he cannot hold them. But the man who takes advantage is he who, though he has slower horses, always watches the terma, and turns it tightly..


During the years my father was married to my mother he saw that the festival of Olympia was beloved and admired by all men, and it was there that the Greeks made a display of wealth and strength and training (education), and the athletes were envied (experienced zelos) while the cities of the victor became renowned.

Isokrates, Team of Horses

He thought these things through and through and, although in no way untalented (aphuesteros) nor weaker in his body, he looked down on the gymnic games since he knew that some of the athletes were lowborn and from small city-states and poorly educated.

Isokrates, Team of Horses

Tethrippon was introduced in ________.

680 BCE

Therefore he tried his hand at horse-breeding, work of the most wealthy and not possible for a poor man, and he beat not only his competitors, but all previous winners.He entered a number of teams, something that not even the biggest city-states, as public entities, had ever done in the competitions.And their arete (physical excellence) was such that he came in first, second, and third.

Isokrates, Team of Horses

Strepsiades (Father of Horse-racing son)It’s no good, I just can’t sleep!I’m being bitten by debts and eaten away by stable bills.Why? Because of this long-haired son of mine,And all his riding events and chariot races.He lives, breathes, and dreams horses!

Aristophanes, Clouds


Soul but not person


Statues, gives "delight" to gods


Fine manliness. Beauty contests

Children of the Styx

Nike, Zelos, Kratos, Bie

Nike =


Zelos =


Kratos =


Bie =





Guest-host relations




Prize (in athletics)


Anger at being deprived of social worth




Labours of Hercules