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14 Cards in this Set

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Forit was neither every kind of fame nor fame from every source that he courted,as Philip did, who plumed himself like a sophist on the power of his oratory,and took care to have the victories of his chariots at Olympia engraved uponhis coins; nay, when those about him inquired whether he would be willing tocontend in the foot-race at the Olympic games, since he was swift of foot,‘Yes,’ said he, ‘if I could have kings as my competitors.’9 癪f

Plutarch, Lifeof Alexander, 4.5:ire

Then,going up to Ilium (Troy), he sacrificed to Athena and poured libations to theheroes. Furthermore, the gravestone of Achilles he anointed with oil, ran arace by it with his companions, naked, as is the custom, and then crowned itwith garlands, pronouncing the hero happy in having a faithful friend while helived, and after death, a great herald of his fame (i.e.Homer).eti癠|

Plutarch, Life of Alexander,15.4:

Alexanders private funeral games for Achilles in Troy

“FirstTarquinius waged war on the Latins and captured the town of Apiolae. Because hebrought back more plunder than expected from what seemed like a small war, heput on more extravagant ludi than previous kings had done. It was then that theplace now called the Circus Maximus was marked out. There were separatesections of seats for senators and knights to watch from, with benches onsupports as much as 12 feet from the ground. There were horse races and boxersbrought in from Etruria. These games are still held annually, and called the LudiRomani or the Great Ludi.” 39.3癚V

Livy, The History of Rome,1.35.7-9:ll war,

“Butnow the procession is coming—keep silence all, and attend! The time forapplause is here—the golden procession is coming. First in the train isVictory, borne with wings outspread—come hither, goddess, and help my love towin! Applaud Neptune (Poseidon), you who trust too much in the wave! I willhave nothing to do with the sea; I choose that the land keep me. Applaud thyMars, O soldier! Arms I detest; peace is my delight, and love that is found inthe midst of peace. And Phoebus Apollo—let him be gracious to augurs, andPhoebe gracious to huntsmen! Minerva (Athena), turn in applause to thee thecraftsman’s hands! You country dwellers, rise to Ceres (Demeter) and tenderBacchus (Dionysos)! Let the boxer court Pollux, the horseman Castor! But weapplaud thee, mild Venus (Aphrodite) and thy children potent with the bow…. aX_j

Ovid, Amores 3.2.43-58 à Ovid, love poet, meets his mistress at the circus Maximusth theGrN

“But even those who havetriumphs, and who on that account keep the generals of the enemy alive a longertime, in order that, while they are led in triumph, the Roman people may enjoyan ennobling spectacle, and a splendid fruit of victory; nevertheless, whenthey begin to turn their chariot from the forum towards the Capitol, order themto be taken back to prison, and the same day brings to the conquerors the endof their authority, and to the conquered the end of their lives.”癔P

Cicero (Philosopher, Politician, Orator):

“Forin time long past, in accordance with the belief that the souls of the-dead arepropitiated by human blood, they used to purchase captives or slaves ofinferior ability and to sacrifice them at funerals. Afterwards, they preferredto disguise this ungodly usage by making it a pleasure. So, after the personsthus procured had been trained--for the sole purpose of learning how to bekilled!-- in the use of such arms as they then had and as best as they couldwield, they then exposed them to death at the tombs on the day appointed forsacrifices in honor of the dead. Thus they found consolation for death inmurder.”olor:癀\

Tertulian (Christian author, 155BCE- 240CE) On Spectalces 12: o

“Sothe Romans made use of the splendid armor of their enemies to do honor to thegods; while the Campanans, in consequence of their pride and hatred of theSamnites, equipped after this fashion the gladiators who furnished thementertainment at their feasts, and bestowed on them the name of Samnites.” ear癹s

Roman Historian Livy: e

“Theordered that armor and weapons should be made ready, and took down temples andporticoes of ancient spoils of enemies. The levy wore a strange appearance, forowing to the scarcity of free men and the need of the hour, they bought, withmoney from the treasury 8,000 young and stalwart slaves and armed then, butasked them first if they were willing to serve. They preferred the slaves forsoldiers, though they might have redeemed the prisoners of war at lessexpense.” acr癯i

Livy 22.57.9:i/

“Emperors were to be crediblefathers of the country, strong military leaders, rulers of the world, andworthy candidates for deification and veneration in the emperor cult.”alw

Kyle, Sport and Spectacle p.303litary

“Thelast day was that of the elephants, and on that day the mob and crowd wasgreatly impressed, but manifested no pleasure. Indeed, the result was a certaincompassion (misericordia) and a kind of feeling that the huge beast has afellowship with the human race.” t癲

Cierco, letter to Marcus Marius ested

“ButPompey's elephants, when they had lost all hope of escape, tried to gain thecompassion of the crowd by indescribable gestures of entreaty, deploring theirfate with a sort of wailing, so much to the distress of the public that theyforgot the general and his munificence carefully devised for their honor, andbursting into tears rose in a body and invoked curses on the head of Pompey forwhich he soon afterwards paid the penalty.”療^

Pliny, Natural Histories hen t

“Theinsurrection of the gladiators and their devastation of Italy, which isgenerally called the war of Spartacus,1 had its origin as follows. Acertain Lentulus Batiatus had a school of gladiators at Capua, most of whomwere Gauls and Thracians. Through no misconduct of theirs, but owing to theinjustice of their owner, they were kept in close confinement and reservedfor gladiatorial combats.”“Twohundred of these planned to make their escape, and when information was laidagainst them, those who got wind of it and succeeded in getting away,seventy-eight in number, seized cleavers and spits from some kitchen andsallied out. On the road they fell in with wagons conveying gladiators' weaponsto another city; these they plundered and armed themselves. Then they took up astrong position and elected three leaders. The first of these wasSpartacus, a Thracian of Nomadic stock, possessed not only of great courage andstrength, but also in sagacity and culture superior to his fate, and moreHellenic than Thracian.” \

Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 8.1ff:1

• “Spartacus emerges asthe most capital fellow in the whole history of antiquity. A great general[...], of noble character, a ‘real representative’ of the proletariat ofancient times. Pompey a real sh!t [...]”PYa1o_

Karl Marx on Spartacus:ody>

“The whole world belongs to Rome so Rome must be destroyed and made onlya bad memory, and then where Rome was, we will build a new life where all menwill live in peace and brotherhood and love, no slaves and no slave masters, nogladiators and no arenas, but a time like the old times, like the golden age.We will build new cities of brotherhood, and there will be no walls around them癓m

Howard Fast, Spartacus p.170so Rom