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149 Cards in this Set

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Muscles compose nearly how much of the body's mass?
Nearly half of the body's mass
How many pounds of muscle (approximately) would a 150 pound person have?
Approximately 70 pounds
Muscles are _______ composed of multiple tissues
Muscles are organs composed of multiple tissues
What are muscles made of?
Multiple tissues
Primary function of muscles
Contraction for movement
In this course, what kind of muscles will we focus on especially?
Skeletal muscles
Muscle attach to bones via ________---
attach to bones via tendons
What are tendons made of?
Dense regular connective tissue
What happens for someone who has Huntington's disease or cerebal palsy?
Their muscles flail about
Muscles move bones by __________ on them
pulling on them
How many muscles are there?
More than 650 individual muscles
What CAN'T muscles do for bones?
Can't push bones
Innervate
Nerves → muscles, glands
Muscle functions:
Produce body movements
Move fluids & foods through muscular tubes
Maintain posture
Generate body heat
Stabilize joints
Bilaterally symmetric
Having identical parts on each side of an axis
What is a by-product of skeletal muscle activity?
Heat is a by-product
How do muscles stabilize joints?
Prevent excess force from tearing joints apart
Origin
Muscle attachment to the more stationary bone
Insertion
Muscle attachment to the more movable bone
What is another way to think of the origin for a muscle?
As an anchor
Think of a pitcher winding up to throw. Why is it good for muscles to be stabilizing his shoulder joint?
They keep his arm from flying out of its socket!
Muscles are dynamic stabilizers. Why?
Muscles can change length
What kind of stabilizers are ligaments? Why?
Ligaments are static stabilizers cuz they won't give much at all
"Biceps" =
Two heads
Latin word for arm
Brachii
How does your body regulate blood pressure?
Controls constriction of blood
3 types of muscle tissues
Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac
Corocoid process
Looks like a crows' beak.
On the shoulder
What are all three types of muscle tissue made of?
Muscle cells/fibers
What shape is a smooth muscle cell?
Fusiform or spindle shape
Tonic
Continuous
ex: "To maintain posture, muscles are tonically active"
Why are muscles exothermic?
They give of heat for the blood to carry. This is what makes humans warm-blooded.
What shape are muscle fibers?
Cylinders
Where is the sternocleidomastoid muscle and what does it do?
It's in the neck and it lets you nod.
If you see the fine strands of meat on your chicken leg, what are you actually seeing?
Individual muscle fibers of the chicken.
The contractile ability of muscles is dependent on two types of ________________.
dependent on two types of myofilaments
What are myofilaments?
Special contractile proteins
Because of the latin terminology you're learning, you know what a sarcophagus is. what is it?
Sarcophagus= "flesh eating"
Flesheating limestone coffin
"Myo"-
Muscle
"Sarco"--
Flesh
Use your latin knowledge. What does myocardium mean?
Heart muscle
Sarcolemma
Muscle cell membrane
Muscles come in a variety of shapes, depending on their ___________-.
Depending on their function
Three gross muscle shapes
Bulgy, stereotyped muscle
Spindle-shaped
Flat fan or circular shape
Example of a bulgy, stereotyped muscle
Biceps
Example of spindle-shaped muscle
finger muscles
Examples of flat fan or circular shaped muscle
Skull muscles,
pectoral muscles,
muscles around eyes or mouth
Sphincter
Circular muscle which acts as a valve. Let's food into the intestine.
Examples of sphincters (hint, they're both on the face)
Orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris (oris purses lips)
Fascia
Outermost fibrous connective tissue coverings
Function of fascia
Help to separate individual muscles from one another and other tissues
Within a muscle: skeletal muscle ____________ bundled together by _______________ sheaths to form muscles
muscle fibers bundled together by connective tissue sheaths
Endoymysium
Encloses a single muscle fiber
What kind of fascia is the hypodermis?
Superficial fascia
There's superficial fascia and then there's _______fascia
deep fascia
Unipennate
"Half of a feather" shape
Example of a unipennate muscle
In forearm there's a muscle that contracts your thumb
Bipennate muscle shape:
Whole feather shape.
Example of a bipennate muscle
Rectus femoris on top of the thigh
Multipennate muscle shape
Look like feathers squished together
Example of a multipennate muscle
Deltoid muscle
function of Perimysium
Encloses a bundle of sheathed muscle fibers
Which is a tougher membrane... the endomysium or perimysium?
The perimysium is tougher
What does a perimysium bundle muscle fibers together to form?
to form a fascicle
How many muscle fibers are in a fascicle?
50 or 100 muscle fibers
What does the serratus anterior look like?
Looks like a serrated knife
___________ of a motor neuron travels down to innervate individual muscle fibers
Axon of a motor neuron
Axon of a __________ __________ travels down to innervate individual muscle fibers
Axon of a motor neuron
Epimysium function
Encloses many fascicles
Which is tougher: the perimysium or epimysium?
Epimysium is tougher
Fibers depend on the strength of the ______
Fibers depend on the strength of the others
Shape of tendons
cylindrical
Describe aponeuroses
Strong and sheet-like
Aponeuroses:
Flat band-like sheet of connective tissue
Are aponeuroses muscle?
No!! They are a very flat tendon
Where's one place you would find an aponeurosis?
Aponeurosis of external oblique
What do tendons and aponeuroses connect to?
They connect to bone, cartilage, or connective tissue coverings of other muscles
The myofibrils are covered in these organs
Covered in sarcoplasmic reticulum
Sarcolemma
Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
Shape of skeletal muscle fibers
Elongated, cylindrical
How many nuclei in skeletal muscle fibers?
Multi-nucleate
Why are skeletal muscle fibers multi-nucleate?
They're so long
Where are the nuclei located in a skeletal muscle fiber?
Peripheral location (just under the outer membrane)
Why do the nuclei of a skeletal muscle fiber have a peripheral location in the cell?
The muscle fiber doesn't have any room for nuclei in its main part
"Muscle fibers have striped appearance". What is the word for this?
Striated
Voluntary
Subject to conscious control
How do skeletal muscle fibers compare in size to the other two muscle fiber types?
Skeletal muscle fibers are the largest of the 3 muscle fiber types
Maximum that a skeletal muscle fiber can grow
Up to a foot in length
Skeletal muscle fibers have rapid ________-ility.
rapid contractility
How easily do skeletal muscle fibers fatigue?
Fatigue easily
If you looked at the microscopic anatomy of a single skeletal muscle fiber, what two main structures would you see?
Sarcomeres and myofilaments
Sarcomere
Basic microscopic contractile unit of a muscle
What could sarcomeres be compared to?
compare them to little train boxcars lined up end to end
We can illustrate sarcomeres by thinking of little train boxcars lined up end to end. How does this illustration fail in one respect?
There is no space between the "boxcars"
Myofilaments
Fine, straight filaments
What are myofilaments made of?
Special muscle proteins
Two types of myofilaments in a skeletal muscle fiber:
Myosin filaments
Actin filaments
Thick myofilaments are _________
Thick are myosin filaments
Thin myofilaments are ________________ filaments
actin filaments
Where are mitochondria located in a muscle fiber?
Mitochondria on periphery of muscle fiber
Thin myofilaments (actin): location
Actin myofilaments are anchored in the ends of the sarcomere
what are the ends of the sarcomere called?
Z lines
Why are Z lines named Z lines?
They actually look like a Z
Location of thick myofilaments
in the center
Myofilaments occur in what kind of pattern?
Alternating parallel pattern
Thick-thin-thick-thin-thick etc. lined up next to each other along the length of a sarcomere
the filaments lie ___________ to one another
lie parallel to one another
The filaments lie parallel to each other, _____________-ing in their longitudinal extent to varying degrees
overlapping in their longitudinal extent
Filaments overlap in their longitudinal extent to varying degrees, dependent on what?
Dependent on the relaxation/contraction state of the muscle cell
If myofilaments partially overlap, what is happening to the muscle?
It is relaxed
If myofilaments have increased overlap, what is happening to the muscle?
Varying degrees of contraction
What happens to the sarcomere when a muscle contracts?
The sarcomere shortens
Go do the ADAM lab we never did. The one over the superficial muscles.
Check
Muscles are frequently named for:
1. Location
2. Shape
3. Relative size
4. A bone they are near
5. Direction of their fascicles
6. Location of attachments
7. Number of origins
8. Combination of the above
Example of a muscle being named for its location
Brachialis
Brachium =
arm
Costa=
Rib
Two examples of muscles being named for their shape
Deltoid and trapezius
Where is the trapezius muscle?
On your back
Examples of muscles being named for their relative size (name two pairs)
Gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus

Zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor
Muscles can be named for their relative size by being called "major" or "minor". There is another term that means "middle"
Medius = middle
Two examples of muscles being named for a bone they are near
Rectus femoris
tibialis anterior
Examples of muscles being named for the direction of their fascicles
rectus abdominis
transversus abdominis
external oblique
Rectus=
Rectus refers to fibers running parallel to the body midline

ex: rectus abdominis
Transversus=
Running at right angles to body midline

ex: transversus abdominis
Oblique muscle=
Running at an oblique angle to the midline

ex: external oblique
Use arrows to show direction of fascicles in a "rectus" muscle:
↓↓↑↑
If a muscle is named for the location of its attachments, what is the order of these two names?
In order of origin, then insertion
Insertion is always the part in a muscle that ______
part in a muscle that moves
Example of a muscle named for the location of its attachments
Brachioradialis
Why is the brachioradialis named that?
Origin: brachial [arm] bone ; insertion: radius
Three examples of a muscle being named for the number of its origins
Triceps brachii
Biceps brachii
Quadriceps femoris
What is the quadriceps femoris muscle?
Includes vastus medialis, lateralis, etc. to make up the quads
Think of names for muscles that have their action in the name
Flexor
Extensor
Adductor
Aductor
Pronator
Supinator
Two examples of muscles named for their action
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Pronator teres
Why is the flexor carpi ulnaris called "ulnaris"?
It travels along ulna
Function of flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexes wrist
An example of a muscle being named for a combination of reasons
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Dissect the name of the extensor carpi radialis longus
Extend carpals, travels along radius, and longer than the extensor carpi radialis BREVIS
you are ONLY responsible for studying the muscles in Figs 8.15, 16, and 17a for the LECTURE CL
got it.
Which muscles help you smile?
The zygomaticus major and minor
Tibial tuberosity (f.)
Gives attachment to the patellar ligament
Where is tibial tuberosity? picture it in yo' mind.
Where is the infraspinous fossa? picture it in yo' mind
Something separates the infraspinous fossa and the supraspinous fossa. What?
the spine of the scapula separates
Capitulum of humerus (f.)
It articulates with the cupshaped depression on the head of the radius,
Location of capitulum of humerus (picture it in yo' mind)
On the lateral side of humerus
On the lateral side of humerus
keratinocytes (f.)
Form barrier against pathogens, UV radiation,
and water loss.
Diff between strain and a sprain
A sprain is an injury in a joint, caused by the ligament being stretched beyond its own capacity.
A muscular tear caused in the same manner is referred to as a strain.
Spell the bone disease that makes elderly women breaks bones easily
osteopOrosis