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97 Cards in this Set

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Origin
End of tendon that is attached to a bone. Origin is closer to midline than the insertion
Insertion
Other end of tendon attached to bone that is moved by that muscle
Tendons
band-like extensions of the connective tissue wrapping muscle fibers
Aponeuroses
thin sheet-like tendons that attach muscles to bone
Agonists
muscles that act directly during a movement
Antagonists
muscles that act in opposition of agonsists
The shoulder muscles are...
Serratus Anterior, Trapezius, Latissimus Dorsi, Perctoralis Major, Deltoid, and Pectoralis Minor
The upper arm muscles are...
Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Coracobrachialis, and Brachialis
The muscles of the forearm wrist and hand are...
Brachioradialis, Supinator, Pronator Teres & Pronator Quadratus, Flexor Carpi Radialis & Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
opposition
the action of contraction of short muscles at the base of the thumb that allow contact with the tip of each digit
Dorsal Interosseus Muscles
permits abduction and adduction of the digits
Synovial sheaths
tendons contained in tunnels
The major muscles of the thigh are...
Psoas Major, Iliacus, Sartorius, Quadceps Femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, Adductor Group, and Gluteus Maximus (Minimus, Medius),
The largest muscle in the body is...
Quadriceps
The muscles of the lower leg are...
Tibialis Anterior, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Peroneus Longus, and Peroneus Brevis
The Soleus & Gastrocnemius shape the posterior of the calf, known as...
Triceps Surae
Facial muscles exist within...
Superficial Fascia
Muscles of the face include...
Temporalis, Masseter, Medial Pterygoid, Lateral Pterygoid
What are the six muscles that play a role in facial expressions?
Obicularis oculi, Platysma, Obicularis oris, Zygomaticus, Buccinator, Epicranius
What are thin muscles attached to the skin are called?
Cutaneous muscles
What are the two sets of muscles that move the eyeball called?
Extrinsic muscles
What muscles are responsible for the shape of the lens, pupil dialation and contraction?
Intrinsic muscles
The muscles of the neck are...
Sternocleidomastoid, and Infrahyoid muscles
What is the name of the line that descends down midline from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis?
Linea Alba (connective tissue; no muscle, nerves, or vessels)
The muscles of the abdomen are...
Rectus Abdominus, External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transverse Abdominis
What are the two major muscles of inpiration?
Diaphragm and External intercostal muscles
Laboured Breathing requires use of these muscles?
Pectoralis Major and Trapezius
Expiration requires these three muscles groups?
Internal and External oblique, Transverse abdominis, and Rectus abdominis
What are the two muscles that make up the floor of the pelvis?
Levator Ani and Coccygeus
Bone
or
Osseous Tissue
connective tissue that contains specialized cells and a matrix of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance
Which bones are longer than they are wide?
Long bones
humerus, or femur
Which bones have roughly equal dimensions?
Short bones
wrist, ankle
Which bones are thin and broad?
Flat Bones
parietal bone(skull), ribs, scapula(shoulder blades)
Which bones have complex shapes?
Irregular Bones
vertebrae
The central shaft of a bone is called the _____.
Diaphysis
The central marrow cavity contains _____, a loose connective tissue.
Bone marrow
The expanded portions at each end of the bone are called ______, and are covered with _______.
Epiphyses, Articular cartilage
Bone that is solid.
Compact Bone
Bone that resembles a network of bony rods or struts separated by spaces.
Spongy bone
Also know as Cancellous bone
What are bone cells called?
Osteocytes
Small pockets found between narrow sheets of calcified matrix are called what?
Lacunae
Narrow sheets of calcified matrix are called _____.
Lamellae
Small channels that radiate through the matrix, and interconnect lacunae are called ______.
Canaliculi
What is the basic functional unit of compact bone?
an Osteon
Lamellae form rods or plates called _____.
Trabeculae
Mature Bone cells
Osteocytes
Giant cells with 50 or more nuclei, dissolve bone marrow to release minerals
Osteoclasts
Produce new bone through osteogenesis
Osteoblasts
The process of replacing other tissues with bone is called ________.
Ossification
_____ _____ begins when osteoblasts differentiate within embryonic or fetal fibrous connective tissue.
Intramembranous ossification
The place where ossification first occurs is called _______ ______.
Ossification center
_______ ______ is how most of the bones of the skeleton are formed through existing hyaline cartillage.
Endochondral ossification
Cartilage found on the epiphyses of a long bone.
Epiphyseal cartilages
The enlargement process in which cells of the periosteum develop into osteoblasts and produce additional bone matrix.
Appostional growth
What is remodeling?
The process of replacing bone in a certain area. 18% of protein and minerals are replaced each year.
What causes fractures?
bone cracks or breaks if subjected to extreme loads, sudden impacts, or stresses from unusual directions.
Inadequate Ossification is called ______.
Osteopenia
How many bones are there in the human body?
206
How many bones are in the axial skeleton?
80
How many bones are there in the appendicular skeleton?
126
How many bones in the skull?
22, 8 in the cranium, 14 associated with the face
Process
projection or bump
Ramus
extension of a bone that makes an angle with the rest of the structure
Trochanter
large rough projection
Tuberosity
small rough projection
Tubercule
small, rounded projection
Crest
prominent ridge
Line
Low ridge
Spine
pointed process
Head
expanded articular end of an epiphysis
Neck
Narrow connection between epiphysis and diaphysis
Condyle
smooth rounded articular process
Trochlea
smooth, grooved articular process
Facet
small, flat articular surface
Fossa
Shallow depression
Sulcus
Narrow Grove
Foramen
Rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves
Canal
Passageway through the substance of a bone
Fissure
Elongated cleft
Sinus
Chamber within a bone, normally filled with air
The bones of the foot are ______, _______, and _________.
Tarsal, Metatarsal, and Phalanges
The bones of the lower leg are ______ and _______.
Tibia and Fibula.
The bones of the upper leg are _______ and ________.
Femur and Patella.
The pelvis is made up of the ______ ___.
Coxal bone
The Vertebrae is made up of ___ cervical, ____ thoracic, and ____lumbar and the _____ and ______.
7 cervical, 12 throacic, 5 lumbar and the sacrum and coccyx.
The C1 is also known as the _____ (makes nodding possible).
Atlas
The C2 is also known as the _____ and allows the head to move back and forth. This vertebrae also has a projection called the _____.
Axis, Dens
The cranium is divided into six bones the ______, _____, ______, _____, ______, and _______.
Parietal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Temporal, Occipital, Frontal
PEST OF six
The parietal bone interlock along the ______ suture.
Saggital
The parietal bone interlocks with the Frontal at the _____ suture.
Coronal
The occipital bone contacts the two parietal bones at the _____ suture.
Lambdoid
The ____ _____ connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity
foramen magnum
The two projections on the foramen magnum are the _____ _________.
Occipital condyles
The temporal and parietal bones intersect at the ______ suture.
squamous
tympanum
eardrum
The point of articulation with the lower jaw.
Mandibular fossa
The ____ ______ is a long sharp process that is attached to ligaments that connect to the hyoid bone.
Styloid process
pen-shaped