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34 Cards in this Set

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Fascia

- Layers of fibrous connective tissue, which extends beyond the muscle to become its tendon
- Skeletal muscle is covered by fascia

- Layers of fibrous connective tissue, which extends beyond the muscle to become its tendon


- Skeletal muscle is covered by fascia

Tendon

- Joins muscles to bones
- The layer that attaches to the muscle is called the epimysium

- Joins muscles to bones


- The layer that attaches to the muscle is called the epimysium

Fascicles

- Muscle fibres (cells) are grouped into fascicles (bundles)

- Muscle fibres (cells) are grouped into fascicles (bundles)

Sarcolemma

- The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

- The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

Sarcoplasm

- The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

- The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

Isotonic Contraction

- Ordinarily, when muscles contract, they shorten and movement occurs--this is called isotonic contraction. 
Examples include:     
- Lifting an object off a desk    
- Walking    
- Swimming

- Ordinarily, when muscles contract, they shorten and movement occurs--this is called isotonic contraction.


Examples include:


- Lifting an object off a desk


- Walking


- Swimming

Isometric Contraction

- Sometimes muscles contract, but they do not shorten and no movement occurs--this is called an isometric contraction. 
- Muscles that keep our bodies upright when standing or sitting involve the isometric contractions of muscles that oppose gravity

- Sometimes muscles contract, but they do not shorten and no movement occurs--this is called an isometric contraction.


- Muscles that keep our bodies upright when standing or sitting involve the isometric contractions of muscles that oppose gravity

Muscle Tone

- A condition in which there are always some muscle fibers contracted--not the whole muscle, just some of the fibers

- A condition in which there are always some muscle fibers contracted--not the whole muscle, just some of the fibers

Aerobic Metabolism

- In the presence of oxygen--aerobic respiration


- 38 ATP per glucose




Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP

Anaerobic Metabolism

- In the absence of oxygen--anaerobic respiration


- 2 ATP per glucose




Glucose --> Lactic Acid + ATP





Metabolism of Creatine Phosphate

- Provides very quick transfer of energy and a phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecules to regenerate ATP


- Provides sufficient ATP to sustain contractions up to 15 seconds




Creatine Phosphate + ADP --> Creatine + ATP

Oxygen Debt

- Defined as the additional oxygen that is required after physical activity to restore resting conditions
- Laboured breathing that continues after the activity has stopped pays that debt back

- Defined as the additional oxygen that is required after physical activity to restore resting conditions


- Laboured breathing that continues after the activity has stopped pays that debt back

Origin

- The end of the muscle that is attached to the stationary bone is called the origin (and is NOT easily movable)

- The end of the muscle that is attached to the stationary bone is called the origin (and is NOT easily movable)

Insertion

- The end attached to the other bone than the origin is called the insertion (and is easily movable)

- The end attached to the other bone than the origin is called the insertion (and is easily movable)

Masseter

- Raises the mandible (lower jaw bone)    
- Responsible for mastication (chewing)

- Raises the mandible (lower jaw bone)


- Responsible for mastication (chewing)

Sternocleidomastoid

- These muscles in the sides of the neck are named for their attachments     
- When only one side contracts, the head turns to the opposite side

- These muscles in the sides of the neck are named for their attachments


- When only one side contracts, the head turns to the opposite side

Trapezius

- Moves the shoulder blade (scapula) and the head    
- Shrug your shoulders and pull them back

- Moves the shoulder blade (scapula) and the head


- Shrug your shoulders and pull them back

Deltoid

- Large triangular-shaped muscle that covers the shoulder    
- Abducts the arm (raises it laterally) to the horizontal position

- Large triangular-shaped muscle that covers the shoulder


- Abducts the arm (raises it laterally) to the horizontal position

Pectoralis Major

- Large (major) anterior muscle in the upper chest

- Large (major) anterior muscle in the upper chest

Latissimus Dorsi

- This muscle is lateral and dorsal    
- Extends and adducts the arm (i.e., brings it down from a raised position)    
- This muscle is used for swimming, rowing, and climbing a rope

- This muscle is lateral and dorsal


- Extends and adducts the arm (i.e., brings it down from a raised position)


- This muscle is used for swimming, rowing, and climbing a rope

External Oblique

- Runs at a slant and at right angles to the internal oblique muscle; the transversus abdominis, runs horizontally across the abdomen    
- Abdominal wall is strengthened by having muscle fibers that run in different directions

- Runs at a slant and at right angles to the internal oblique muscle; the transversus abdominis, runs horizontally across the abdomen


- Abdominal wall is strengthened by having muscle fibers that run in different directions

Rectus Abdominus

- Outermost muscle that runs straight (rectus) up from the pubic bones to the ribs and sternum    
- Holds the contents of the abdominal cavity in place    
- Also allows the vertebral column (spine) to move easily

- Outermost muscle that runs straight (rectus) up from the pubic bones to the ribs and sternum


- Holds the contents of the abdominal cavity in place


- Also allows the vertebral column (spine) to move easily

Biceps Brachii

- This muscle is on he anterior upper arm    
- Flex your arm

- This muscle is on he anterior upper arm


- Flex your arm

Triceps Brachii

- The only muscle of the posterior upper arm    
- Extends the forearm

- The only muscle of the posterior upper arm


- Extends the forearm

Flexor Carpi and Extensor Carpi

- Originate on the bones of the forearm and insert on the bones of the hand    
- Move the wrist and hand

- Originate on the bones of the forearm and insert on the bones of the hand


- Move the wrist and hand

Gluteus Maximus

- Largest muscle in the body    
- Covers a large part of the buttock    
- Straightens the leg at the hip when one is walking, climbing stairs, or jumping from a couched position

- Largest muscle in the body


- Covers a large part of the buttock


- Straightens the leg at the hip when one is walking, climbing stairs, or jumping from a couched position

Gluteus Medius

- Lies partly behind the gluteus maximus    
- Raises the leg sideways to a horizontal position

- Lies partly behind the gluteus maximus


- Raises the leg sideways to a horizontal position

Adductors

- Located on the medial part of the thigh    
- Bring down the leg from a horizontal position; press the thighs together

- Located on the medial part of the thigh


- Bring down the leg from a horizontal position; press the thighs together

Quadriceps Femoris

- Composed of rectus femoris and vastus muscles (lateralis, intermeduis and medialis)    
- Main extensor of the lower leg

- Composed of rectus femoris and vastus muscles (lateralis, intermeduis and medialis)


- Main extensor of the lower leg

Hamstring Group

- Composed of three muscles that are found in the back of the thigh: semitendinosus, bicep femoris, and semimembranosus

- Composed of three muscles that are found in the back of the thigh: semitendinosus, bicep femoris, and semimembranosus

Sartorius

- Long, strap-like muscle that begins at the hip, passes inward across the front of the thigh (femur), and descends over the medial side of the knee

- Long, strap-like muscle that begins at the hip, passes inward across the front of the thigh (femur), and descends over the medial side of the knee

Gastrocnemius

- Located at the back of the lower leg where it forms the large part of the calf    
- This powerful plantar flexor of the foot aids in pushing the body forward when you walk or run

- Located at the back of the lower leg where it forms the large part of the calf


- This powerful plantar flexor of the foot aids in pushing the body forward when you walk or run

Tibialis Anterior

- Long, spindle-shaped muscle located on the front of the lower leg    
- Contraction of this muscle causes dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

- Long, spindle-shaped muscle located on the front of the lower leg


- Contraction of this muscle causes dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

Peroneus

- Found on the lateral side of the leg where it connects the fibula to the foot bones    
- Contraction of this muscle causes eversion and plantar flexion (pointing of the toes)

- Found on the lateral side of the leg where it connects the fibula to the foot bones


- Contraction of this muscle causes eversion and plantar flexion (pointing of the toes)