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11 Cards in this Set

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Question 2: How do many peopleconceptualize motivation? Illustrate with a sport example that is not in thischapter.

Many people conceptualize motivation as some “thing” within us that causes our actions, and many people attribute an outstanding athletic performance to the athlete’s internal drive to achieve. A sports example would be a young hockey player who often misses practice and when he does attend seems to mentally be “somewhere else” and just goes through the motions of the drills. This athlete would be characterized as unmotivated.

Question 4: List two practicallimitations of the traditional conceptualization of motivation? A conceptuallimitation of the traditional view of motivation is that it involves circularreasoning.

The causal “thing” (dive, motive) is usually inferred from the very behavior that it is supposed to explain. There is also the idea that motivation is mainly internal which can cause the player to be blamed for inferior performances and cause athletes to blame themselves.

Question 5: What is a general meaningof the verb “to motivate” as used is sports? What is an implication of thisapproach?

The general meaning of the verb “to motivate” is to influence an individual’s behavior in various ways in sports. An implication of this of this perspective is that motivational strategies are to be found in the environment, not in the individual.

Question 6: List seven types ofantecedents that can be used to motivate athletic behavior.

1. Goals

2. Models

3. Imagery

4. Self-Talk

5. Picture Prompts

6. Announcements of friendly competitions

7. Schedule Cross Training for Variety

Question 8: Describe an example thatis not in this chapter to illustrate how an athlete might use imagery tomotivate practice performance.

An example would be a competitive swimmer who imagines himself winning gold at his upcoming competition before each time he gets into the pool to train.

Question 10: List seven categories ofconsequences that can motivate participation in sports and improved practiceand competitive sports performance.

1. Reinforcers for Performing Well and Winning

2. Coach’s Praise

3. Self-Improvement

4. Stimulation of the Senses

5. Posted Records of Progress

6. Enjoying Competing

7. Peer Approval

Question 15: Is deliberate use ofreinforcement by coaches’ bribery? Defend your position.

No the deliberate use of reinforcement by coaches is not bribery because the use of this rule is implemented to strengthen a behavior not commit immoral actions

Question 16: What does it mean tosuggest that extrinsic reinforcement undermines intrinsic motivation?Illustrate with an example.

This means that the use of extrinsic motivation causes intrinsic motivation to become less important because there is an external incentive (like money) which could take the front stage over intrinsic (such as love of the game). Players may become dependent on the extrinsic motivator in order to perform well.

Question 19: What is a CMO?Illustrate with an example.

CMO- a conditioned motivating operation which alters effectiveness of CR’s due to prior learning. Eg. A soccer player kicking with the laces of his foot, not toes… it’s likely the coach will praise him.

Question 21: How does a CMO differfrom an SD? Illustrate with examples that are not in this chapter.

A CMO temporarily changes what you want and explains how to achieve it, while an SD shows how to achieve what you already want. Eg. An Sd would be the manger telling the team they are in the finals if they win this game, whereas the coach telling the players they need to play more defensively to win this game which will get them to the finals.

Question 22: Summarize, from abehavioral perspective, four steps that a coach might follow to motivateathletes.

Arrange experiences to motivate behavior, manipulate MO’s to maximize the effectiveness of reinforcers, describe environmental arrangements in rules, and provide reinforcers.