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11 Cards in this Set

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Question 1: Define a rule, and give asport example that is not in this chapter. Does your example illustrate all 3aspects of a rule?

A rule is a statement that a specific behavior will pay off in a particular situation. A complete rule will include three aspects: antecedent, behavior, and a consequence. Example: Don't touch the ball with your hands (behavior), when playing soccer (antecedent), or the referee will blow the whistle (consequence). This example illustrates all 3 aspects of a complete rule. (Page 60)

Question 2: What is a partial rule?Describe a sport example that is not in this chapter. Which of the threeaspects of rule does your example specify?

Partial rules are rules that do not identify all three aspects of a reinforcement situation. These three aspects are antecedent, behavior, and consequence. Example: "Out-of-bounds" area in golf. This example illustrates the antecedent. (Page 60)

Question 3: Definecontingency-learned behavior, and give a sport example that is not in thischapter.

Contingency-learned behavior is behavior that has been strengthened or weakened in settings by the direct effects of consequences in those settings. Example: The first time a person attempts to play miniature golf. Sometimes that person doesn't hit the ball hard enough to get it to the hole. At other times, the ball is hit much harder than is necessary. Eventually, that person gets better and better at hitting the ball just hard enough to get it to the hole. (Page 61)

Question 11: What are tworeasons that the rule, "I'm going to eat healthier and lose someweight" is so difficult to follow for many people?

Two reasons that the rule, “I’m going to eat healthier and lose some weight" is so difficult to many people to follow are: * Some rules are difficult to follow because the opposite behavior is immediately reinforced. * Other rules are difficult to follow because following the rule leads to fairly immediate punishers. (Page 65)

Question 12: What are fourcharacteristics of rules that are often effective in controlling behavior?

They identify the circumstance in which the behaviour should occur.

The behaviour in which the individual is to engage.

They identify a deadline for performing the behaviour.

And they state the consequences for complying or not complying with the rules.

Question 14: What type of goal is anoutcome goal? Describe a sport example that is not in this chapter.

Outcome goals are goals for results against competitors. The achievement of such goals depends on both the performance of the athlete who sets the goal and the performance pf the athlete's competitors. Examples: Winning vs losing, placing in the top five in a race, and making the Olympic team. (Page 68)

Question 15: What type of goal is aperformance-standard goal? Describe a sport example that is not in this chapter.

Performance-standard goals are goals for which an athlete tries to meet a performance standard that is not an outcome goal. Many performance-standard goals involve competing against onself. Other performance standard goals do involve an athlete interacting with other athletes, but focus is not on winning or losing. Examples: Running a 100 meter dash within a certain time, or bench pressing a certain amount of weight. (Page 68)

Question 16: What type of goal is anexecution or process goal? Describe a sport example that is not in thischapter.

Execution or process goals are goals for performing skills in certain ways. Example: Following through while shooting in basketball. (Page 68)

Question 17: What is a masterycriterion? Give a sport example that is not in this chapter.

A mastery criterion is a specific guideline for performing a skill such that if the guideline is met, the skill is likely to be mastered. A mastery criterion should identify a particular quantity, level, or standard of performance. Example: Making 10 tennis volleys in a row alternating left and right corners. (Page 69)

Question 20: According to Hayes andcolleagues, why is public goal setting likely to be more effective than privategoal setting?

Public goals have been demonstrated to be more effective than private goals because public goals for a person are goals that at least one other person, and usually several or more other people are aware of. Hayes and colleagues have theorized that setting a public goal provides a public standard against which performance can be evaluated, and that it implies social consequences for achieving or not achieving the goal(s). (Page 70)

Question 21: From a behavioralperspective, what is the meaning of commitment in the context of goal setting?Give a sport example that illustrates all three components of commitment.

From a behavioral perspective, commitment refers to statements or actions by a person setting a goal that imply that the goal is important, that he or she will work toward it, and that he or she recognizes the benefits of doing so. Goals are likely to be effective only if there is continuing commitment to them by the individuals involved. Example: A figure skater who wants to improve her landing after doing lifts and jumps in the air, so that her routine is perfect for the competition, she can arrange her environment by putting out reminders so that she is reminded to practice her lifts and jumps. She can even display her previous pictures and trophies in her room so that she is reminded of her goal. (Page 70-71)