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13 Cards in this Set

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Question 1: How might stimulusgeneralization have been involved in the application with basketball playersdescribed at the beginning of this chapter?

* Stimulus generalization is the tendency of a subject to respond to a stimulus or group of stimuli similar but not identical to the original CS. * Stimulus generalization was involved in the application with the basketball players because each player would imagine or visualizing that cutting off an approaching opponents multiple times a day. Eventually, this should result in the player doing the correct behavior when facing any offensive player.

Question 3: What is“conditioning sensing”? Describe an example other than conditioning seeing thatis not in this chapter

Conditioning sensing is described as bringing some physiological activity associated with one or more of our senses under the control of previously neutral stimulus. An example would be eating a food that your mother used to make all the time when you were a child. Once you taste that food again years later, you may imagine your childhood kitchen (conditioned seeing), hear your mother in the kitchen (conditioned hearing), and have the feelings of comfort (conditioned feeling)

Question 5: In a sentence or two,describe what is meant by “mental rehearsal”

Mental rehearsal or mental practice refers to the process of imagining and feeling oneself performing an activity.

Question 6: Distinguish betweeninternal vs. external imagery

Encouraging athletes to feel themselves performing is often referred to as internal imagery, while encouraging athletes to imagine that they are watching themselves performing is often referred to as external imagery.

Question 7: List five ways thatathletes might use mental imagery to enhance practice performance

* Imagery to energize before practices

* Instant mental replays to learn the feelings of correctly-performed skills

* Imagery practice sessions away from the sport environment

* Imagery at practices before performing previously-learned skills to increase the likelihood of performing successfully

* Visualization to simulate the competitive environment (to promote generalization to competitions)

Question 10: Describe an example(that was not in this chapter) to illustrate how an athlete might usevisualization at practices to promote generalization of a skill to competitions

During football practices, a football player may imagine a competitive environment, imagine the crowd booing and/or cheering and the pressure they would feel, as a result it promote generalization of a skill to competitions.

Question 11: List four ways that athletesmight use mental imagery and/or visualization to enhance competitiveperformance

* Imagery for emotional control

* Imagery for mental toughness

* Mental rehearsal of a skill (s) just before performing

* Imagery to help tune out distractors

Question 14: What is meant by theterm “key word”? Describe a sport example that is not in this chapter.

Key words serve as a discriminative stimulus to prompt particular body positions or focus of attention. For example a basketball player thinking “follow through” to prompt a full follow through of their wrist when they shoot the ball. (page 112)

Question 19: Describe an example thatis not in this chapter, to illustrate how an athlete might use key words totransfer a skill from practices to a competition.

An athlete can use self-talk to remind him or herself of the sorts of things that are usually focused on in practice, and then by focusing on some of those same things at a competition, skilled performances occurred in practice are likely to transfer to the competition. (page 113-114) For example a tennis player who was struggling to get their serves over the net could say key words to themselves such as “breathe”, “focus on the ball” and “relax” while practicing their serves. Then during a game they could recite those same key words to themselves to help them calm down and get their serve over the net and in bounds.

Question 20: What is meant by theterm “desired mood words”? Illustrate with a sport example not in this chapter.

Desired mood words are words that elicit emotional feelings which have been associated with past successful performances. (page 114) For example, a football player could use words such as “fight for every tackle”, “never give up” or “play hard”.

Question 22: Briefly describe each ofNdieffer's four major categories of stimulus control of athletic performance,and illustrate with a sport example that is not in this chapter.

1- Broad external stimulus control indicated that, in some athletic situations, the athlete must attend to a number of different external cues in a short period of time. For example a soccer player trying to make a corner kick while being aware of where the defence has positioned themselves.

2- Narrow external stimulus control refers to an athlete skill under the stimulus control of a specific external stimulus, and the ability of the athlete to ignore a variety of potential distracting cues. For example, a volleyball player watching the ball as it gets bumped back over the net by the opponent instead of being distracted by where their other 5 teammates are standing on the court.

3- Broad internal stimulus control refers to instances of thinking about complex problems in the absence of any obvious external SD's; such thinking is often referred to as analyzing, planning, and problem solving. For example, a baseball coach on the sidelines while his team is in the field thinking about which plays worked good in the last inning and which ones he would like his team to try and execute when they are up to bat next.

4- Narrow internal stimulus control refers to situations where an athletic skill is under the control of a specific internal cue. For example, a volleyball player focusing on when they take their second step during a spike approach to prompt their jump. (Info from pages 115-116)

Question 24: List the threecomponents of a strategy used with professional hockey players to help them to“stay in the game” when sitting on the bench in between shifts on the ice.Describe examples of self-talk for the last two components.

The three components of the strategy used with hockey players is relax, regroup and refocus. Examples of self-talk for the “regroup” component include “that one's gone forever”, “the rest of my game starts now” and “get ready for the next shift”. Examples of self-talk for the “refocus” component include “I’ll jump on loose pucks”, I’ll finish my checks” and “I’ll shoot quick”. (Page 117)

Question 26: List five ways thatathletes might use self-talk to enhance their performance in competitions.

1- Use of key words for a skill to transfer that skill from practices to competitions.

2- Mood words to control feelings of desired emotions.

3- Self-talk for shifting attention to different cues.

4- Self-talk for refocusing during a break in the action.

5- Self-talk to stop negative thoughts and emotions.