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9 Cards in this Set

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Question 1: Describe the three maincomponents of the motivation package that Connie applied to improve thepractice performance of the speed skaters.

* Goal Setting: Skaters were encouraged to set written weekly goals for the number of laps and drills completed. * Self-Monitoring: They recorded their performances daily in log books and evaluated their performance at the end of each practice * Performance feedback: Connie met with them each week to discuss their progress and providing feedback to the athletes.

Question 3: In general, what isperformance feedback?

In general, performance feedback is a consequence of an operant behavior that can influence future instances of that behavior or an alternative behavior.

Question 4: What is proprioceptivefeedback? Describe an example that is not in this chapter that illustrates howproprioceptive feedback could enable an athlete to successfully repeat apreviously learned athletic skill.

Proprioceptive feedback is a type of performance feedback that involves internal stimulation generated from movement. Example: A young volleyball player attempts his overhand serve several times. After some time, he finally figures out how to serve the ball over the net by learning and feeling the position and movement of his body parts.

Question 6: What is externalinformational feedback? Describe a sport example that is not in thischapter.

External informational feedback is a judgment provided to an athlete about the quality of performance that the athlete has just displayed. Example: A young athlete participating in track and field attempts his long jump. He won’t know how far he jumped until he receives the distance measurement from the coach or the judges.

Question 13: What are two reasonsthat public posting of practice performance might be more effective as amotivator than the athlete’s private monitoring of performance?

* Public posting can be effective in stimulating peer interactions to reinforce increased output. * Public posting can serve as an important reminder to coaches to provide praise for progress.

Question 14: What is meant by“recruitment of positive feedback?” illustrate with a sport example that is notin this chapter.

Recruitment of positive feedback is a strategy to improve performance that involves an individual emitting a desirable behavior, and then telling someone about it in order to receive positive feedback. Example: A gymnast practicing her routine attempts to do a backflip off the balance beam and lands perfectly. At the end of the practice, she tells her coach that she her routine is coming together and that she was able to land perfectly on her landings. The coach then praises her and tells her to keep up the good work.

Question 18: A mastery criterion istypically formulated so that what two assumptions are likely to be met?

A mastery criterion is typically formulated to make it likely that two assumptions will be met. First, once the athlete has achieved the mastery criterion, it is likely that he or she has learned the skill well enough so that, if asked to do it sometime later, the skill would be performed correctly. Second, if the athlete has met a mastery criterion during practice, there is high probability that the skill will be executed correctly during a competition. (Page 69)

Question 20: According to Hayes andcolleagues, why is public goal setting likely to be more effective than privategoal setting?

Public goals have been demonstrated to be more effective than private goals because public goals for a person are goals that at least one other person, and usually several or more other people are aware of. Hayes and colleagues have theorized that setting a public goal provides a public standard against which performance can be evaluated, and that it implies social consequences for achieving or not achieving the goal(s). (Page 70)

Question 21: From a behavioralperspective, what is the meaning of commitment in the context of goal setting?Give a sport example that illustrates all three components of commitment.

From a behavioral perspective, commitment refers to statements or actions by a person setting a goal that imply that the goal is important, that he or she will work toward it, and that he or she recognizes the benefits of doing so. Goals are likely to be effective only if there is continuing commitment to them by the individuals involved. Example: A figure skater who wants to improve her landing after doing lifts and jumps in the air, so that her routine is perfect for the competition, she can arrange her environment by putting out reminders so that she is reminded to practice her lifts and jumps. She can even display her previous pictures and trophies in her room so that she is reminded of her goal. (Page 70-71)