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9 Cards in this Set

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Question 1: In a sentence each,summarize three important characteristics of our emotions, and name the type ofconditioning involved in each.

1. The reaction that one feels inside during the experiencing of an emotion which is influenced by respondent conditioning.

2. The way that one learns to outwardly express an emotion which is influenced by operant conditioning.

3. How one becomes aware of and describes one’s emotions, which is influenced by operant conditioning.

Question 3: Describe unconditionedreflexes (i. e., the USs and the URs) that appear to characterize the emotionsof fear, anger and joy.

Unconditioned reflexes that appear to characterize the emotion of fear, anger, joy are autonomic reactions that make up our feelings initially, and are often accompanied by visible reactions such as blushing, trembling e.t.c.

* the USs of a sudden loss of support,loud sounds, and a sudden push elicited the URs of a sudden catching of breath,a clutching or grasping response, and crying that he labelled as fear. * The US of hampering an infant’smovements elicited the URs of crying, screaming, and body stiffening, that helabelled as anger.

* the USs of tickling, gentle rocking,and patting elicited the URs of smiling, gurgling, and cooing, that he labelledas joy.

Question 4: In the experiment withlittle Albert, what was the US? The UR? The CS? The CR?

US: The loud noise

UR: Crying

CS: The white rat

CR: Fear

Question 6: For each of the followingemotions, identify a general cause, and illustrate each cause with an examplefrom your own experience: Happiness, Anger, Anxiety, and Relief -

Presentation of reinforcers causes the emotion called happiness. Ex. I won a volleyball game last week (positive reinforcer), that brought me joy. - Withholding or withdrawal of reinforcers causes the emotion called anger.

Ex. I got very angry when my brother took my sweater without asking me. - Anxiety or fear is the label given to the emotional experience when we encounter aversive stimuli.

Ex. I got anxiety before writing an exam, knowing I could fail it. - Withdrawal of aversive or punishing events causes an emotional that is called relief.

Ex. I had relief after I was running late for a work shift, but made it there on time.

Question 7: Describe four effects ofexcessive nervousness and tension, and briefly explain why each effect mightinterfere with athletic performance at competitions.

1. A physiological change that is a narrowing of attention. A nervous or fearful athlete is less likely to attend to important external cues.

2. It consumes energy in the process of all those psychological changes. Although a burst of energy can enhance performance in short-term athletic activities, the extra energy consumption can be problematic in endurance activities.

3. It causes the adrenal gland to secrete adrenalin, which will cause the athlete to rush a skilled routine, so that timing is thrown off.

4. It adds additional stimuli to the competitive environment that were not likely present in the practice environment, which interferes with stimulus generalization of a skill from practice to competition.

Question 12: Define or describe eachof the following:

Deep centre breathing: a martial arts procedure that emphasizes thought control, a particular way of breathing and muscle relaxation.

Progressive muscle relaxation: involves alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while attending closely to the sensations that are felt when the muscles are tensed versus when they are relaxed.

Question 13: Define “choking” as theterm is used in sports. Describe an example that was not in this chapter.

Choking is defined as a critical deterioration in the execution of habitual processes as a result of an elevation of anxiety levels under perceived pressure, leading to substandard performance. An example of this would be a volleyball player who is serving for the game winning point in the finals. She might think to herself “if I blow it I’ll let down my whole team.” The self-talk and pressure causes excessive nervousness, causing the player to serve the ball into the net and lose the game.

Question 14: Describe severalstrategies that might be used to minimize the likelihood of the occurrence of“choking” in sports.

Strategies used to minimize the occurrence of choking in sports include:

-view a situation as an opportunity for a realistic challenge;

-Focus on what you can control, don’t think about what you can’t control;

-Think about what you want to do, not what you don’t want to do;

-Just before performing, mentally review past instances of successful performance;

-Focus on the process of competing, not the possible outcomes.

Question 15: List the four steps thathave characterized successful anger management programs used withathletes.

1. Identify anger-causing situations

2. Teach substitute behaviors to compete with the anger

3. Practice the substitute behaviors using imagery and/or simulations and/or role playing

4. Use the coping skills in competitive situations, with monitoring and/or supportive contingencies.