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9 Cards in this Set

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Question 5: Define taskanalysis

Task analysis refers to breaking a skill into its component parts so that it can be taught effectively, and improvements can be accurately monitored.

Question 8: Briefly describe twostrategies for ensuring that young athletes understand what it is that thecoach wants them to do.

#8 Two strategies for ensuring that athletes understand what the coach wants them to do:

Ask Questions to test for understanding

Ask athletes to role-play skills.

Describe two types ofnatural reinforers. Give an example of each.

One is the sensory feedback that is inherent in the performance of a task. An example would be the “feel” of the solid contact when a golfer hits a good shot. Another type of natural reinforcer is the “natural” (as opposed to deliberately-planned) reaction of others. An example would be a cheer from teammates for a good play.

Question 11: What are two reasons forencouraging coaches to capitalize on natural reinforcers?

Two reasons for encouraging coaches to capitalize on natural reinforcers:

(1)The more that beginners experience the natural reinforcers of performing a skill, the greater the likelihood that they will practice that skill on their own.

(2)Capitalizing on natural reinforcers in the natural environment is an important tactic for maintaining it in the long run.

Question 14: Distinguish betweenprescriptive praise and regular or nonprescriptive praise. Give an example ofeach that are not in this chapter.

Perspective praise: is a type of praise used to get a particular behaviour to occur more often, it identifies the aspect of the athlete’s skill that was desirable or that indicated improvement. E.g. A football coach might say “nice handle on your free kicks”. While non-perspective praise: does not identify any specific skill exhibited by the athlete, it just provides a generic praise for the athlete’s performance, e.g. “Well done”. that last lift! You got right up on your toes!”

:Define “shaping” (see Chapter 4) and describe a sports example that is not inthis chapter

Shaping refers to the reinforcement of successive approximations from an initial behaviour to a final desired behaviour, e.g. A basketball coach might praise an athlete for almost getting a free throw shot, until he/she actually makes the shot.

Question 17: Define stimulus control(see Chapter 4), and describe a sport example from this chapter.

Stimulus control: refers to the correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a particular response, e.g. The degree to which the position of a teammate exerts control over where a soccer player is going to shoot/pass the ball.

Statethree reasons why a coach should continue to dispense deliberately programmedreinforcers to young athletes, even after their athletic skills appear to havecome under the control of natural reinforcers.

First, although natural reinforcers might maintain skills in competitive environments, reinforcers from coach can help sustain effort and performance during repetitive practices.

Second, competitive situations contain punishers as well as natural rewards.

Third, an athlete rarely reaches the point where there is nothing left to learn.

List the six characteristics ofeffective behavioural coaching.

First, this approach emphasizes specific measurement of athletic performance and use of such measurement as the primary means of evaluating the effectiveness of teaching strategies.

Second, it recognizes a clear distinction between developing and maintaining behaviour.

Third, it encourages coaches to help athletes improve as measured against their own previous performance, as opposed to being compared with others.

Fourth, it emphasizes that coaches use behaviour modification procedures that have been experimentally demonstrated to be effective.

Fifth, behaviour modification techniques can also be applied to help the coach change his/her behaviour.

Sixth:Coaches are encouraged to use social validity assessments to ensure that the athletes, parents, and others involved in the program are satisfied with the target behaviours that were identified, procedures used, & results that were obtained.