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16 Cards in this Set

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Define the term community. State the relationship of community to that of the health of a community. Identify at least four types of communities.
• Community- a group of individuals who interact with each other for the mutual benefit of their common interests to support a sense of unity or belonging.
• Community health is the aggregate health of a population; a town, state, nation or planet. A community’s health is continuously monitored using the “10 Leading Health Indicators” (Ch 6).
 Types of Communities:
1) School
2) Town or city
3) Family
4) Workplace
Identify the health-related functions of WHO and UNICEF
WHO- (World Health Organization) established in 1948 by the United Nations (UN)
• Sanitation
• Chemical safety
• Water purification
• Immunizations
• Infectious diseases
UNICEF- (United Nations Children’s Fund) also established by the UN
• Nutrition instruction
• Support of general education
• Childhood immunization programs
• Infant rehydration programs
• Supplying safe water
• Low-cost food supplements
State at least six achievements attributed to improvements in public health that resulted in an increase of lifespan in the 20th century
1) Vaccinations
2) Motor-vehicle safety
3) Safer workplace
4) Control of infectious diseases
5) Safer and healthier foods
6) Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard
Define and differentiate amond the USPHS, the HHS, and the OPHS
• USPHS- (United States Public Health Service)- 1798, responsible for investigation and control of communicable diseases, protection from disease carried by immigrants, control of sanitation, prevention of disease spread through interstate commerce, and control of the manufacture and sale of biologic products.
 Agencies of HHS
 Program offices
 Surgeon general
 Emergency preparedness
 Minority health
 Population affairs
• HHS- (US Department of Health and Human Services)- created by Congress and is one of the executive agencies also have health-related functions. These offices also include the Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Department of Labor (DLO).
• OPHS- (The Office of Public Health and Science)- an office that provides leadership and coordination across agencies of the USPHS and HHS.
 NHIC (The National Health Information Center)- a service of the OPHS; provides health information to both consumers and healthcare professionals.
 Office of the Surgeon gene
Discuss at least six functions of the HHS
• ACF
• AOA
• AHRQ
• ATSDR
• CDC See bottom of objectives for information
• CMS
• FDA
• HRSA
• HIS
• NIH
• SAMHSA
ACF Mission
The Administration for Children and Families (ACF), within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is responsible for federal programs that promote the economic and social well-being of families, children, individuals, and communities. ACF programs aim to achieve the following:
• families and individuals empowered to increase their own economic independence and productivity;
• strong, healthy, supportive communities that have a positive impact on the quality of life and the development of children;
• partnerships with front-line service providers, states, localities, and tribal communities, to identify and implement solutions that transcend traditional program boundaries;
• services planned, reformed, and integrated to improve needed access; and
• a strong commitment to working with vulnerable populations including peo
Identify at least four functions of the CDC
1) Investigating disease outbreaks at a local, national or international level (avian flu) or outbreaks or occurrences of bioterrorism (anthrax)
2) Provide current and accurate health-related information to the public
3) Fostering cooperative relationships with national, state, and local organizations to combat dangerous environmental exposures (may occur in air, water, and workplace)
4) Promotes healthy behaviors
Identify at least four functions of the FDA
1) Regulates food ingredients, complex medical/surgical equipment, medications, & radiation-emitting products
2) Requires safety practices in blood banking
3) Requires new drugs and complex medical devices be proven safe before they are put into a consumer market
4) Conduct scientific research and providing standards and guidelines to make regulatory decisions
Discuss the purpose of the NIH and state the role of the NINR
• NIH- (National Institute of Health)-their mission is to uncover new knowledge that will lead to better health for everyone.
 Conduct research on-site (Bethesda, MD) or thru universities, medical schools, hospitals, or other research institution
 Train research investigators
 Promote improved sharing of medical information

• NINR- (National Institute for Nursing Research)-est. 1993, it separates the funding for nursing research from other Institute research funding, such as medicine. The NINR supports research and establishes a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the lifespan. The focus of nursing research is to discover ways to benefit clients.
 Management of clients during illness and recovery
 Reduction of risks for disease and disability
 Promotion of needs for underserved, high-risk clients such as those with chronic illness and healthcare disparities
 Care for individuals at the end of life
 Promotion of the care of families within a community
Identify at least four functions of OSHA
• OSHA- (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)- is a subdivision of the DOL that works to prevent occupational injury and illness. Their mission is to send every worker home whole and healthy every day.
 Standards for safety and health protection in the workplace
 Standards for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens
 Standards published to protect construction workers
 Ergonomic standards to prevent musculoskeletal disorders
Identify at least three functions of the Social Security Agency.
1) Provides retirement income for many people
2) Provides financial assistance for healthcare to special populations
3) Regulates Medicare and Medicaid

Identify the role and at least two functions of each of the following organizations: APHA, Natioanl Safety Council, the Red Cross and the VNA
• APHA- (American Public Health Association)- 1872- oldest and largest org. of public health professionals. Its goal is to provide leadership, influence policies, and establish public health priorities.
 Provides better personal and environmental health, pollution control, and smoke-free environments
 Assist with chronic and infectious illnesses
 Provides professional education in public health
• National Safety Council- 1913- the mission is to educate and influence society to adopt safety, health, and environmental policies, practices, and procedures that prevent and mitigate human suffering and economic losses arising from preventable causes. (non-government org.)
 Analyze causes of accidents and suggest preventive measures (seat-belts, head rests)
 Disseminate information about accident prevention in industry, in the home, and on public highways.
• Red Cross- (International Red Cross & the Red Crescent Movement) - work worldwide to provide services that assist individuals, com
Differentiate between organizations that are related to specific disorders and organizations promoting specific health goals.
Specific Disorders
• American Cancer Society
• National Society for the Prevention of Blindness
• American Heart Association
• American Diabetes Association
• Cystic Fibrosis Foundation
• National Easter Seal Society
• March of Dimes
 National voluntary agencies that often have state and regional affiliates, they fulfill the need for funding and education devoted to specific diseases. Volunteer organizations sponsor activities or conduct fund drives to raise money for treatment or research relating to their particular area of interest. Voluntary organizations have a great impact because they appeal to public sentiment, and citizens participate in them directly.

Specific Health Goals
 May not be concerned with the disease, but with the promotion of aspect of health. Example, Planned Parenthood of America focuses on family planning and prevention of STDs. They assist people by providing genetic counseling, abortion counseling, infertility examination, and birth control.
Identify at least seven programs that are common to state healthcare services.
• Aging
• Children’s health
• Families in need
• Mental health
• Alcohol and substance abuse
• Environmental health
• Communicable diseases
Discuss primary care and functions of the community health center.
The local or regional health department often sponsors community-based healthcare. They usually belong to an organization called the National Association of Healthcare Centers (NAHCC); providing a wide range of services, including primary healthcare, TB screening, STDs (HIV) testing, and lead poisoning testing. They also provide immunizations and prenatal care. Federally Qualified Healthcare (FQHC) provide healthcare in parts of the US identified as medically underserved areas (MUA) and is monitored by the U.S. Public Health Service.
Identify at least three causes of each of the following types of pollution: air, water, land, and noise.
• Air-
 Automobile exhaust
 Carbon monoxide
 Smoking
• Water-
 Inadequate wastewater treatment
 Mercury
 Unsanitary sewage around public waters
• Land-
 Garbage/trash
 Radon
 Pesticides
• Noise-
 Loud music
 Target shooting/gun fire
 Industrial machinery
Discuss the significance of plum-bism, radiation, and biohazardous waste pollution.
• Plumbism- lead poisoning; it causes serious mental and physical health disabilities, particularly in young children.
• Radiation- ionizing waves of energy that penetrate objects; public and power companies using nuclear fuel; improper disposal of radioactive wastes.
• Biohazardous waste pollution- proper and safe disposal of medical wastes, which are infectious and harmful to humans and animals, is the responsibility of every institutional and individual healthcare provider. The process of disposal must meet multiple-standard regulations of OSHA, Department of Environmental Protection, and local and state health departments.