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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Martin Luther succeeded where other Church critics had failed largely because of:

the printing press.

Martin Luther's work had an enthusiastic popular support because:

(4 things)

He attacked the sale of indulgences that the poor could not afford,

Many Christians shared his concern about the corruption of the church,

Many Germanic princes saw this as a way to break away from the Church,

He supported the translation of the Bible from Latin to vernacular languages.

What political motivations encouraged the spread of Protestantism?

Protestantism provided monarchs an opportunity to break away from the political domination of Rome.

John Calvin's contribution to the furthering of the Protestant Reformation came from:

Codifying Protestantism into a coherent and organized manner.

In response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church:

(4 things)

Launched a military campaign against the German states,

Abandoned its monasteries in Germany,

Abandoned the practice of selling indulgences,

Summoned a council to clarify doctrine and strengthen their spiritual commitment.

Which is not considered to be a part of the Catholic Reformation?

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

What was the principle work of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits)?

To be disciplined, educated representatives of the Church throughout the world.

One reason for the hysterical witch-hunts of the 16th century was that:

the conflicts of the reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence.

True/False: In contrast to modern stereotypes, nearly half of all accused witches were men.

False. They were women.

Which two kingdoms were involved in the Spanish Armada?

Spain and England

The Thirty Years' War began when:

the Holy Roman Emperor tried to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism.

Who benefited most from the religious controversy generated by the Reformation?

centralizing monarchs, because they gained more independent authority.

Which countries were apart of Charles the V's holdings?



the Netherlands,



Charles V was unable to forge a united empire because:

(4 reasons)

The Lutheran challenge sapped much of his attention,

French kings undermined his efforts and allied themselves with his enemies,

There was no central administration to the empire; each state was governed separately,

His empire was geographically fragmented.

The Spanish Inquisition relied on religious justifications to advance what political ends?

Discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism.

17th century constitutional monarchies are characterized by:


Representational institutions such as Parliament,

A system of shared authority,

State support for maritime trade and international commerce,

Recognition of individual rights.

According to the divine-right theory of government:

the king derives his authority from God alone and is not accountable to his subjects.

Louis XIV managed to control the nobles of France and their activities by:

Requiring the nobility to live at Versailles where he could distract them and keep an eye on them.

The reforms of Peter I included:


Offering better pay for peasants who served for life as professional soldiers,

Forcing his subjects to adopt western European fashions,

Building the city of St. Petersburg to serve as a base of naval operations,

Providing extensive training and modern weapons to soldiers.

The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, ensured that:


Germany would remain fragmented,

The nations of Europe would no longer go to war over religion,

Each nation was permitted to direct its own internal affairs,

The balance of power was the new principle of European diplomacy.

The population of Europe grew dramatically in the 17th century because of:

improved nutrition with new American food crops.

New institutions that supported early capitalism included:


Banks and lending institutions,

Stock exchanges,

Joint-stock companies,

Insurance companies.

The putting-out system was profitable for the following groups:


The entrepreneurs who moved cloth production into the countryside,

The rural workers who did the spinning and weaving,

The consumers who bought the finished cloth,

The merchants and traders who shipped woolen cloth outside the country.

Pair the individuals with their scientific discoveries:

Planetary orbits, the sun-centered model of the universe, the principle of inertia, the principle of gravity.

Newton, Kepler, Galileo, Copernicus.

Newton- Principle of gravity

Kepler - planetary orbits

Galileo - principle of inertia

Copernicus - sun-centered model of the universe

Galileo's discoveries would not have been possible without:

the telescope.

Isaac Newton's work seemed to suggest that:

the stars and planets were part of a unified system, governed by the same natural laws.