• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Industrial Revolution
a time of technological developments, tremendously impacting society
Jethro Tull
invented a seed planter, doing away with wasteful scattering of seeds
Charles Townshed
introduced a new system of crop rotation, also discovering that, by using fertilizer, the crop yield per acre was much higher
Robert Bakewell
used selective breeding to produce larger and healthier farm animals
enclosure movement
Parliament made it much easier for wealthy land owners to incorporate common grazing lands into their own estates and form large forms
John Kay
invented a "flying shuttle" , making it possible for weavers to work faster and weave cloth of greater width
James Hargreaves
invented the spinning jenny, a machine that could spin up to eight threads at a time
Richard Arkwright
invented a spinning frame that not only produced thread superior to spinning jenny but also was powered by water
Samuel Crompton
invented an even larger spinning wheel, which he called the "spinning mule", that could spin a thousand threads at a time with only person
Eli Whitney
devised a simple cotton gin with which one man could do the work of 50 pickers
domestic system
popular during the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, people would labor from their homes, setting their own work schedules and determining how they wished to produce
factory system
brought workers, raw materials, and machinery under one roof
Henry Cort
invented a process by which iron ore was stirred in the furnace to rid it of impurities; also developed a method of rolling and hammering the iron to produce a more versatile product called wrought iron
Henry Bessemer
found that by shooting a jet of air into molten iron would help rid it of more impurities
James Watt
designed the first practical and efficient steam engine
John McAdam
discovered that by constructing roads with tightly packed crushed rocks roads would be smoother and more durable
Richard Trevithick
built a stem-powered locomotive
George Stephenson
built a locomotive that could pull a train of cars for the first time
Robert Fulton
first to operate a steam boat as commercial success
Orville and Wilbur Wright
made the first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Henry Ford
began production of the famous Model T automobile
In what country did the Industrial Revolution begin? In what industry did the Industrial Revolution make its real breakthrough?
Great Britain; cotton industry
List two inventions that aided the development o the textile industry. Identify the inventor of each.
"flying shuttle" - John Kay
spinning jenny - James Hargreaves
"spinning mule" - Samuel Crompton
cotton gin - Eli Whitney
What is the name of the system in which workers labored at home, using their own homes, and determining how much they wanted to work and produce?
domestic system
Name two methods of transportation that aided the progress of the Industrial Revolution.
steam powered boats, trains, and airplanes
List the four new production methods that helped manufacturers produce more at cheaper prices.
1) automation
2) interchangeable parts
3) division of labor
4) assembly line
William Wilberforce
motivated by his Christian faith and sincere compassion for his fellow man, led an antislavery movement that helped abolish slavery in Britain
Corn Laws
placed a high tariff on imported grain
Reform Bill of 1832
gave English, middle-class citizens (merchants, bankers, and factory owners) a voice in government
advocated manhood suffrage, the secret ballot, equal electoral districts, pay for members of Parliament, no property qualifications for members of Parliament, and annual elections to Parliament
Benjamin Disraeli
colorful and witty leader of the Conservative party of the time and through his efforts he passed the Reform Bill of 1867
William Gladstone
leader of the new Liberal Party and expressed a deep love for God and Scripture throughout his time as Prime Minister
capstone of Britain's political development
Parliament Bill
wrested some power away from the House of Lords and making the House of Commons the supreme governing body in Britain
welfare state
a state in which the government assumes the responsibility for the material and social well-being of every individual "from the cradle to the grave"
government ownership of the means of production and the distribution of goods for the presumed welfare of society
Utopian socialism
believed that if the inequities in society could be abolished, man's natural goodness could be perfected
Robert Owen
a textile manufacturer who established a Utopian socialist community for his workers in Scotland, including one in New Harmony, Indiana (long story short, it failed)
Karl Marx
abandoning his study of law, he began to study philosophy and law, receiving a doctor of philosophy degree at 23, but no one would hire him because of his radical political views
Friedrich Engels
Utopian socialist who helped co-write the Communist Manifesto in Paris, France
believed all of history is dominated by class struggle and the only way to change this was through communism
middle class property owners, capitalists, and industrialists or factory owners
British socialists who sought to achieve a socialist society without revolution
Christian socialists
theological liberals who believed that Christianity and capitalism were incompatible
Robert Raikes
started Sunday schools to reach the poor, illiterate, and working-class children
George Mueller
founded some of the best-known orphanages in Bristol, England
Young Men's Christian Association; the purpose of this organization was to minister to young men who worked in the city and win them to Christ
William Booth
founded the Salvation Army
Dwight L. Moody
believed that conditions in society will only improve when those who live in that society experience true conversion
List two of the six goals of the Chartist movement.
advocated manhood suffrage, the secret ballot, equal electoral districts, pay for members of Parliament, no property qualifications for members of Parliament, and annual elections to Parliament
Name the two dominant prime ministers of Britain during the latter part of the nineteenth century. Give the political party of each.
Benjamin Disraeli - Conservative
William Gladstone - Liberal
Define "welfare state".
a state in which the government assumes the responsibility for the material and social well-being of every individual "from the cradle to the grave"
What force did Karl Marx believe determined the course of history? In what famous book did he explain his socialist ideas?
communism; Communist Manifesto
For each of the following men, name the ministry with which he was associated: Raikes, Booth, Moody, Spurgeon
Raikes - Sunday school
Booth - Salvation Army
Moody - held evangelistic campaigns in the large, industrial cities of Britain
Spurgeon - "The Prince of Preachers"
Charles Darwin
laid the basis for the modern theories of biological evolution; Origin of Species
John Dalton
Quaker who proposed that all chemical elements were composed of unique particles called atoms
Dmitri Mendeleev
Russian chemist who organized the chemical elements in a chart according to their atomic masses or more commonly known as the periodic table
William Roentgen
German physicist who accidentally discovered x-rays while working with vacuum tubes
Henry Moseley
young British scientist who used Roentgen's x-ray to discover more about atoms
Pierre and Marie Curie
found to new elements in uranium ore called pitchblende
Ernest Rutherford
British physicist who stated that atoms were composed of at least two distinct parts---a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons
Niels Bohr
Danish physicist who built on Rutherford's theory, except his model of an atom shows a nucleus composed of two kinds of particles---positive and neutral neutrons and, around these neutrons, electrons moved in orbits like the sun
Albert Einstein
perhaps the greatest scientific thinkers of the twentieth century, showing the relation between matter and energy through an equation (E=mc² or energy equals mass times the speed of light squared)
a new form of artistic expression in the 1850's, abandoning the free spirited romanticism era and coming to a time of seeing the world as it is, except they tended to lean towards the darker parts of life
Charles Dickens
realist writer and English novelist who, in his work, attacked injustice in society through his vivid portrayals of such beautiful places as industrial slums and debtors' prisons
Thomas Hardy
British novelist and poet who portrayed man as engaged in a hopeless struggle against impersonal forces beyond his control
Samuel Clemens
American and more commonly known as Mark Twain viewed life as did Hardy, except he used humor to convey his ideas
Leo Tolstoy
famous Russian novelist who realistically described life in Russia during the Napoleonic Wars
Gustave Courbet
a famous realist painter who painted life as he saw it, instead of how he imagined it; "Show me an angel," he said, "and I'll paint you an angel."
in the late nineteenth century, French artists created a new style of style of painting, making light and color their chief concern
Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet
most famous French impressionists
Auguste Rodin
Frenchman and foremost sculptor of the nineteenth century; The Thinker
Claude Debussy
Frenchman largely responsible for the impressionistic style in music
Paul Cezanne
Frenchman, also forerunner of cubism (using geometric shapes in painting), denying the impressionist form of painting
Vincent van Gogh
Dutchman, also forerunner of expressionism, denying the impressionist form of painting
emphasized universal themes and outlined the figures in their paintings more clearly
What man laid the foundation for modern theories of biological evolution? In what book did he set forth his theory of "survival of the fittest"?
Charles Darwin; Origin of Species
Identify the contribution to science each of the following men: Dalton, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Bohr, and Einstein.
Dalton - formulated the atomic theory
Mendeleev - developed the periodic chart
Roentgen - discovered x-rays
Bohr - developed the model of the atom
Einstein - explained the relationship of matter and energy and developed the theory of relativity
Which twentieth-century scientist showed the relationship between matter and energy and developed the theory of relativity?
Albert Einstein
What did advocates of the "social gospel" movement believe was the major purpose of Christianity?
to change society and thus improve the people
What was the new form of artistic expression in the latter half of the nineteenth century that sought to portray life as it really is?
Identify the occupation and artistic style of each of the following men: Dickens, Courbet, Renoir, Debussy, and van Gogh.
Dickens - author; realism
Courbet - painter; realism
Renoir - painter; impressionism
Debussy - composer; impressionism
van Gogh - painter; post-impressionism
List three factors that made the Industrial Revolution possible.
adequate food supply, a large and mobile labor force, and expansion of trade
In addition to the factors that made the Industrial Revolution possible (adequate food supply, a large and mobile labor force, and expansion of trade), list three reasons it began specifically in Great Britain.
Britain escaped the destruction of the Napoleonic Wars, had relatively stable and peaceful society, had government that encouraged industrial development, had low interest rates but not excessive taxes, and achieved reforms through parliamentary measures rather than by uprisings
What effects did the factory system have on the lives of workers?
workers often moved to an urban environment to be near the factory; workers no longer owned their own tools but used those provided by the factory; workers no longer controlled their own hours or pace of production; workers now preformed their work while separated from their families
How did the British government try to correct the social and political abuses in nineteenth-century British society?
through social, political, and economic reform that broadened the electorate, giving more people a voice in government, and through the funding of various social programs
List the four major types of nineteenth-century socialism and briefly explain the main idea of each.
- Utopian socialists - believed that proper environment and education would solve society's problems
- Marxism - "scientific socialism"; taught that economic determined the course of history and that one day history would advance by class struggle to a perfect in which all are equal and gladly share the fruits of their labor with others
- Fabian socialists - advanced socialism through gradual change by urging the government to pass welfare legislation
- Christian socialists - believed it was the role of the church and Christians to advance the cause of peace and justice and remedy society's evil primarily through charitable acts and institutions