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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Alfred Nobel
(1833-96) wealthy Swedish chemist who became famous for his promotion of international peace; Nobel Peace Prize
Andrew Carnegie
American philanthropist steel manufacturer, donating much of the funds to build the Peace Palace at The Hague
unbridled nationalism, causing many people to desire war so they could prove their superiority to other nations
Bismarks' System
the German chancelor Bismark's attempt to politically isolate France
Three Emperors' League
(1873) the first alliance Bismark established between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Dual Alliance
(1882) brought the Three Emperors' League (alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) into an anti-French coalition
Reinsurance Treaty
(1887) Bismark's skillfully diplomatic secret alliance with Russia
Wilhelm II
(1888-1918) became kaiser (emperor) of Germany, but, because of his young and arrogant nature, destroyed all hope of politically isolating France and forced to Bismark to resign
Entente Cordiale
the "friendly understanding" between France and Britain
Triple Entente
a peace treaty between Russia, France, and Britain
June 28, 1914
the archduke of Austria-Hungary, Francis Ferdinand, and heir to the throne was assassinated while visiting the Bosnian capital Sarajevo, sparking World War I
a list of demands with threats
make ready
Central Powers
Germany and Austria-Hungary
Schlieffen Plan
a German plan of attack created for emergencies
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847-1934) general who led the German army to victory against Russia
a situation in which both sides were at a standstill
when both sides try to wear each other down gradually
long, slender airships similar to modern blimps
early German submarines
British liner that was sunk on May 7, 1915 by German submarines, killing over 1,000 people
total war
political control in warring nations where groups of generals or a tightly knit cabinet made decisions and implemented policies
unrestricted submarine warfare
the sinking of all ships, even if they are unarmed, that carried supplies to the Allies
Nicholas II
Russian czar who abdicated in 1917, leaving the country under a provisional government
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russian peace treaty with Germany signed in 1918
Woodrow Wilson
American president during World War I
John J. "Black Jack" Pershing
under this American general's leadership, the American military finally had the edge to defeat the Germans
Ferdinand Foch
commander and chief of the Allied armies in France who stopped the German advance
a temporary cessation of fighting
November 11, 1918
at 11:00 a.m. on this day the Allies and the Germans signed an armistice (a temporary cessation of fighting), ending World War I
Paris Peace Conference
established in January 1919, thirty-two nations gathered together to negotiate a peace settlement for World War I
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. president and representative at the Paris Peace Conference
Georges Clemenceau
French premier and and representative at the Paris Peace Conference
David Lloyd George
British prime minister and representative at the Paris Peace Conference
Vittorio Orlando
Italian prime minister and representative at the Paris Peace Conference
the Fourteen Points
moderate settlement advocated by Woodrow Wilson that sought to not seek revenge upon the defeated powers
Treaty of Versailles
the most important of the five treaties that ended World War I
payment for war damages
no armies could be in the area at any time
war guilt clause
placed the entire blame for the war upon Germany and her allies
Treaty of St. Germain
treaty stating Austria:
1) had to give territory to Italy
2) pay reparations
3) limit the size of her army
4) agree not to seek Anschluss (political unification) with Germany
political unification
Treaty of Séveres
dismantled the Ottoman Empire
German colonies
League of Nations
international organization in which nations could discuss their differences instead of fighting about them
Charles Dawes
realizing Germany's financial problems, this American banker formed a committee in 1924 to find a solution
Owen Young
American lawyer who, in 1929, devised a plan that reduced the amount reparations and gave Germany until 1988 to pay them off
Locarno Pact
German agreement to not seek any changes in her Eastern borders
the elimination of weapons or arms, in the hope that it will cease all fighting
Washington Naval Conference
(1921-22) the great naval powers---Britain, the United State, Japan, and others---agreed to limit the amount of warships they could build in an attempt at disarmament, which ultimately failed
Kellogg-Briand Pact
sought to unite "the civilized nations of the world in a common renunciation of war as an instrument of their national policy"
Who established the Nobel Peace Prize to recognize those who furthered the cause of world peace?
Alfred Nobel
Who donated funds to build the Peace Palace at the Hague, where international disputes could be handled peacefully?
Andrew Carnegie
What two countries were eager to prove their new national strength by acquiring territory in Africa and Asia?
Italy and Germany
Who was the architect of a system of alliances designed to isolate France diplomatically?
What country claimed to be the defender of the "brother Slavs"?
What area of Europe was called the "powder keg of Europe"?
the Balkans
Who was assassinated on June 28, 1914?
Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife
Why is that date significant?
It marks the beginning of World War I.
What country's neutrality did the Germans violate as they invaded France? What European country declared war on Germany as a result of that attack on a neutral country?
Belgium; Great Britain
What was the German policy that called for the sinking of all ships, armed or not, that carried supplies to the Allies?
unrestricted submarine warfare
What country left the struggle against Germany in 1918?
What country joined the struggle against Germany in 1917?
the United States
Describe the deeds of America's most famous Medal of Honor winner during World War I.
Sgt. Alvin York: after suffering heavy casualties, him and seven men charged a machine gun nest and, under his leadership, won
Define armistice. Give the hour, day, month, and year for the armistice ending World War I.
a temporary cessation of fighting; 11:00 A.M., November 11, 1918
Who were the three dominant Allied leaders at the Paris Peace Conference? What country did they represent?
Woodrow Wilson - the United States
Georges Clemenceau - France
David Lloyd George - Great Britain
What treaty concluded the peace between the Allies and Germany?
the Treaty of Versailles
With what country did the Treaty of St. Germain settle the peace? What did the treaty forbid?
Austria; Anschluss (political unification) with Germany
What major Allied nation did not join the League of Nations?
the United States
What agreement called upon the nations of the world to renounce the use of offensive war and seek arbitration to settle international disputes?
the Kellogg-Briand Act
List four underlying causes of World War I:
1) extreme nationalism
2) rampant militarism
3) competitive imperialism
4) self-serving protective alliances
Identify the countries that belonged to each of the following alliances and ententes formed before World War I: the Three Emperors' League, the Triple Alliance, the Reinsurance Treaty, the Dual Alliance of 1994, the Entente Cordiale, and the Triple Entente .
Three Emperors' League - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia
Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Reinsurance Treaty - Germany and Russia
Dual Alliance (1894) - France and Russia
Entente Cordiale - France and Great Britain
Triple Entente - France, Great Britain, Russia
List five new weapons of warfare used in World War I.
1) machine guns
2) grenades
3) flame throwers
4) mustard gas
5) heavy artillery
6) tanks
7) zeppelins
8) submarines
9) airplanes
List six reason the United States entered the war on the side of the Allies.
1) resented unrestricted submarine warfare
2) closer ties to Great Britain and France
3) upset over German plot to bring Mexico into the war against America
4) influenced by the Allied propaganda
5) had closer economic ties with the Allies
6) wanted to maintain a balance of power in Europe
What were five weaknesses of the League of Nations?
1) the U.S. did not take part
2) the League could not require its members to take action
3) decisions required the unanimous consent of member nations
4) the League had no armed forces of its own
5) League was hesitant about using force to accomplish their goals