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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
government relief for the unemployed in England
Ramsay MacDonald
first Labour Party (socialists) prime minister of Britain
Statue of Westminster
in this, Britain approved a 1926 report that had declared Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa to be "autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their internal or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the crown
Leon Blum
political party Popular Front activist and appointed leader of the French government
Maginot Line
a line fortification stretching 560 miles from Switzerland to the Belgium border,
October 1929
the stock market collapsed, causing the Great Depression in America
Franklin Roosevelt
elected for American President in 1932 in the hopes he would end the Great Depression; promoted a relief program called the "New Deal"
New Deal
a program of relief, recovery, and reform advocated by president Franklin Roosevelt that sought to employ the unemployed, among other things, to re-build the economy
the non-elected officials who handle government affairs in America
totalitarian states
established by European dictators and, although no two states were identical, they all shared the following characteristics
1) use of propaganda to promote the ideas and programs of the state
2) use of an efficient secret police to arrest or assassinate those who opposed the state and its policies
3) emphasis upon the goals of the state rather than upon individual rights or concerns
4) state control of every aspect of life: political, economic, cultural, educational, and religious
5) a government maintained by force and not accountable to the people for its actions
6) a one-party political system led by a powerful dictator
materials and methods of indoctrination in Europe
Alexander III
successor of Russian Czar Alexander II, who's main goal while in power was to suppress all revolutionary ideas and activities
organized government massacres, killing thousands of Jews in Russia
Nicholas II
held his father's, Russian Czar Alexander III's, harsh laws and policies
radical political party in Russia advocating change through violence
radical political party in Russia advocating change through peaceful measures
Russo-Japanese War
a clash between Russian and Japanese expansion, which led to an all out war
Bloody Sunday
on this day, Russian workers' marched to the czar's winter palace in St. Petersburg in a peaceful procession to speaking with czar Nicholas I, but instead they were met with open fire by goverment soldiers
the Russian constitutional government with free speech and a national assembly issued by the October Manifesto
religious fraud of a monk, who had won the favor of the Russian empress, becoming a royal advisor
Alexander Kerensky
Menshevik who headed the provisional government put into place after the abdication of czar Nicholas II
Vladimir Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks and brilliant young man who became involved in revolutionary activities while attending Russian university
Leon Trotsky
through his efforts, the Communists organized the so-called Red Army
war communism
a tightly regulated system of economic controls in Russia instituted by Lenin
New Economic Policy (NEP)
a temporary solution to the anti-Communist sentiment win Russia
Joseph Stalin
a brilliant and egotistical man known for his fiery speeches , establishing himself as the new dictator of the USSR
Five-Year Plans
a series of programs set into place by Stalin, ending the NEP and turning Russia back towards socialism
bring under central government control
Stalin's attempt to wipe out anyone who might prove disloyal to his regime, killing 800,000 Communist Party members, including many of the ruling elite
"Communist International"; found Communist parties in other countries, taking an active roll in stirring up discontent in hopes of producing revolution
an attractive alternative to Communism and Nazism, promising stability and security, although, in the end, it varied little from Communism
created on the totalitarian principle of government, specially Germanic groups assumed to be racially superior
Benito Mussolini
helped to organize the Fascist party, slowly turning Italy into a Fascist totalitarian state
Il Duce
"leader" or "commander"; Mussolini's self-given title
a program created to make Italy entirely self sufficient
the organization Italy's entire workforce split into thirteen groups
Lateran Treaties
agreement with the Roman Catholic Church and Italy, renouncing the churches territorial claims
strong political party during the early nineteenth century
Weimar Republic
the German republic, which eventually failed, because of its lack of popular support, experience running a republic, and strong traditional attachments to its ideals
Adolf Hitler
the most murderous and tyrannical dictators of modern history
Mein Kampf
the book Hitler wrote while in prison, attacking the Weimer Republic, blaming the Jews for Germany's struggles, and demanding the renunciation of the Versailles Treaty
"broken cross"; the infamous symbol of the Nazis
Paul von Hindenburg
president of the German Weimar Republic
Nazi's secret police
where the artist portrays how he feels about the subject, instead of exactly what he sees
Henry Matisse
one of the greatest examples of expressionism
this painting technique distorted everyday figures into various geometric shapes
Pablo Picasso
Spanish born artist and best representative of cubism
Louis Sullivan
American architect, credited with developing the skyscraper
Walter Gropius
spread the functionalist style throughout Europe
Frank Lloyd Wright
American architect, following a functionalist style approach and believing a design should fit in with its surroundings
Igor Stravinsky
Russian composer, developing the musical theory known as polytonality
Arnold Schönberg
Austrian composer who created what is called atonal music
musical theory that used multiple keys simultaneously, instead of just one
atonal music
abandoned all fixed tone patterns, basing compositions on a twelve-tone scale
T. S. Eliot
American poet who's works reflected attitudes prevalent between the world wars, portraying the desolation and meaninglessness of modern life
Thomas Mann
German novelist, presenting his central characters as passive figures, victimized by the uncontrollable forces around them
James Joyce
novelist who developed the so-called stream-of-consciousness technique, in which the writer is forced to decipher the fragmented and often rambling thoughts of the major character
List the seven possessions of Great Britain that were given self-rule or complete independence after World War I.
the Irish Free State, Egypt, India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa
What factor contributed to the political instability within the Third French Republic following the war.
The country had so many political parties that no one was able to get a majority, giving rise to shaky coalitions.
What was the name of the French line of defense that protected that protected her borders from Switzerland Belgium and Switzerland?
the Maginot Line
Which U.S. president sought to promote relief, recovery, and reform to get his country out of the Great Depression? What name was given to his programs?
Franklin Roosevelt; New Deal
What are the nonelected officials who handle government affairs?
the bureaucracy
Who was the last czar of Russia? In what year was his government overthrown?
Czar Nicholas II; 1917
What Communist leader instituted war communism? What Communist leader instituted a system of purges, eliminating all whom he considered a threat?
Vladimir Lenin; Joseph Stalin
Who was the leader of the fascist party in Italy? In what year did he come to power
Benito Mussolini; 1922
What was the name of the fascist movement in Germany? Who became its leader
the National Socialists German Workers' Party or the Nazi Party; Adolf Hitler
Whom did Hitler call the "master people"? What people did Hitler blame for Germany's problems?
the Aryans, or Germans; the Jews
What were two well-known movements, or schools, of painting in the twentieth century?
expressionism and cubism
Identify the three noteworthy architects who helped establish modern architectural trends.
Louis Sullivan, Walter Gropius, and Frank Lloyd Wright
What is the name of the musical theory that uses several keys simultaneously? Who developed this modern musical style?
polytonality; Igor Stravinsky
What poet sought to describe the desolation and meaninglessness of life prevalent between the world wars? What was the name of his major work?
T.S. Eliot; "The Waste Land"
How did Britain, France, and America deal with their economic problems after World War I.
through government relief programs, socialist programs, and greater government control over economic matters
List six characteristics shared by totalitarian states.
1) the use of propaganda to promote the ideas and programs of the state
2) the use of an efficient secret police to arrest or assassinate those who oppose the state and its policies
3) emphasis on the goals of the state rather than on individual rights and concerns
4) state control of every aspect of life: political, economic, cultural, educational, and religious
5) a government maintained by force and not accountable to the people for its actions
6) a one-party political system led by a powerful dictator
List four ways in which fascism and communism differ or at least in theory.
1) Under fascism, businesses are privately owned but controlled rigorously by the government; under communism, the government both owns and controls businesses.
2) Fascism is highly nationalistic; communism seeks a classless international society (ideally)
3) Military dictatorships usually govern a fascist state; communism deceptively emphasizes the "dictatorship of the proletariat"
4) Fascism glorifies the state; communism teaches that the state will gradually wear away
List five factors that assisted Hitler's amazing rise to power in Germany.
1) the weakness of the Weimar Republic
2) German resentment of the war guilt clause
3) economic problems: inflation and unemployment
4) fear of the spread of communism
5) Hitler's personal leadership and effective use of propaganda
How was the Era of Disillusionment reflected in the arts?
The works of artists and writers portrayed a pessimistic and disjointed view of man, his world, and the future in light of death and destruction of the war and the moral and economic decay that followed.