• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of Elements
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler sunstances by chemical means
Although there are 92 natural elements, 96% of the mass of all organisms is made up of just 4 of them:
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Definition of Trace Elements
only required by an organism in very small quantities
Definition of Atom
the smallest unit of an element that retains its characteristic properties; the building blocks of the physical world
Definition of Isotopes
atoms have the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus
Definition of Ionic Bond
a bond is formed between 2 atoms when 1 or more electrons are transferred from 1 atom to the other
Definition of Chemical Bond
a bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms
Definition of Hydrogen Bond
a weak chemical bonds that form when a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
The 4 unique properties of water are:
-Water is polar and can dissolve other polar substances
-Water has cohesive and adhesive properties
-Water has a high heat capacity
-Water has a high surface tension
A solution is acidic if it contains...
a lot of hydrogen ions (H+). That is, if you dissolve an acid in water, it will release a lot of hydrogen ions
Bases do not...
release hydrogen ions when added to water. They release a lot of hydroxide ions (OH-).
These solutions are called alkaline.
What are the two trends in the Acid Test
-An increase in H+ ions causes a decrease in the pH
-a change in one pH number = a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds:
organic compounds contain carbon atoms and inorganic do not
Definition of Carbohydrates
organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbohydrates are categorized as
monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Definition of Monosaccharides
the simplest sugars, serve as an energy source for cells;
the 2 most common sugars are (1) glucose and (2) fructose
Definition of Disaccharides
formed from dehydration synthesis of 2 monosaccharide, liked by a glycosdic bond
Definiton of Dehydration Synthesis
when a water molecule is removed from two sugars, causing them to become chemically linked; opposite is hydrolysis
Definition of Polysaccharides
made up of many repeated units of monosaccharides; most common are starch cellulose, and glycogen
Defintion of Amino Acids
organic molecules that serve as the building blocks of protein
Every amino acid has 4 important parts:
an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen, and an R group
Defintion of Functional group
the distinctive groups of atoms that play a large role in determining the chemical behavior of the compound they are a part of
What is the bond between two amino acids called
peptide bond
The most common examples of lipids are...
fats, oils, phospholipids, and steroids
A typical fat consists of...
three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol; also called triglyceride
Defintion of Ester Linkage
The linkage that forms from the dehydration synthesis of the carboxyl groups of the three fatty acids and one of the three hydroxyl groups of the glycerol molecule
Defintion of Phospholipids
contains two fatty acid, hydrophobic "tails" and one negatively charged phosphate, hydrophillic "head"
Defintion of Nucleic Acids
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; made up of simple units called nucleotides
A particular polypeptide contains 90 amino acids. When the polypeptide is completely hydrolyzed, how many water molecules are formed during this process?