Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates have the following basic composition. They are molecular compounds made from three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides are simple sugars with multiple OH groups. Based on number of carbons 3, 4, 5, 6, a monosaccharide is a triose, tetrose, pentose or hexose respectively. Disaccharides are condensation products of two monosaccharide units; examples are maltose and sucrose. A disaccharide is 2 monosaccharides covalently linked molecule. Polysaccharides are polymers consisting of chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units. Monosaccharides such as glucose and disaccharides such as sucrose are small molecules. Maltose is made by combining two glucose units together. Glucose has six carbons, six oxygens, and twelve …show more content…
Maltose is a sweet carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are a source of energy for the body for example glucose and a store of energy. Building blocks for polysaccharides for example cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body and components of other molecules for example DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins and ATP. Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group. The structure …show more content…
It is used to detect the presence of reducing sugars. The food sample is dissolved in water, and a small amount of Benedict's reagent is added. During a hot water bath, , the solution should progress in the colors of blue (with no reducing sugar present), orange, yellow, green, red, and then brick red precipitate or brown (with high reducing sugar present). A color change would signify the presence of a reducing sugar. The color in the tube starts out as aqua blue and in the presence of sugar would turn to red/ orange which is positive for sugars.
Iodine/Potassium Iodide test tests for the presence of starch. Starch turns an intense blue-black color upon addition of iodine. In the absence of starch, the brown colour of the aqueous solution remains.

Sudan III is a red dye used for staining fat globules. It has the appearance of reddish brown crystals. Lipid is added to water in a test tube the Sudan III is added. The fat globules stain red and a separate red stained oil layer separates on the surface of the water.
Emulsion Test is a method to determine the presence of lipids . Drops of lipid are added to test tube and shaken with ethanol. Water is added. A cloudy white suspension indicates the presence of lipid

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