Synthesis Process Of Macromolecules

Now onto the fresh information, the Dehydration Synthesis process and the Macromolecules. I’ll start with the Macromolecules. These molecules are the four molecules all living things need to survive. The four molecules are Proteins, DNA, Carbohydrates, and Lipids. Each of these molecules is made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen at the very least. Proteins have Nitrogen as an added element, and DNA has Phosphate and Nitrogen. The base structure of each molecule has a carbon skeleton. This means that structures have Carbon as the base, in diagrams the carbon skeleton will have many bonds but you can recognize it because it will be in the middle of every molecule. Carbohydrates are the main fuel molecules for cellular work, and they provide raw …show more content…
If one fatty acid is bonded with the glycerol, it’s called a monoglyceride. If two are bonded, it’s a diglyceride. Three is the max amount, and they are called triglycerides. They store energy for living things. An example is steroids, which are lipids that have had their carbon skeleton bent to form fused rings. Another example is phospholipids which are a major component of the cell membrane. Lipids can also be unsaturated or saturated. Unsaturated fats in foods are usually in the form of a liquid, as they are liquid at room temperature. They contain double covalent bonds, (that means that two electrons are shared each) and do not contain the maximum amount of hydrogen that they could. Common unsaturated fats are oils. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature, and contain the max number of hydrogen atoms they can. They do not have double covalent bonds. Common saturated fats are butter, and its alternatives. Fats are hydrophobic, and avoid interacting with water. This is why you cannot clean off grease without another substance breaking it down. Proteins are the third macromolecule. They are made up of amino acids, their monomer, which are made up of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and …show more content…
Primary structure is the unique sequence of amino acids that each protein has. The secondary structure takes the polypeptide (many amino acids bonded together) that has formed and folds or coils it into a sheet or alpha helix. The tertiary stage is when the overall 3d shape of the polypeptide is formed. The final stage is quaternary, and that is when two or more polypeptides interlace. An example of a protein is transthyretin, an important transport protein. Another is an enzyme, whose function varies based on the shape that it is given. Enzymes allow all chemical bonds from the dehydration synthesis process to occur at a much faster rate than if there was no enzymes. Enzymes allow life to occur, without them, the reactions would take much too long for life to sustain. The final macromolecule is nucleic acids. They are made from carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, oxygen, and hydrogen. They are built from nucleotides, which are made of nitrogenous bases, a sugar, and a phosphate group. The sugar found in DNA is called deoxyribose, while the sugar found in RNA is called ribose. Nucleotides create the genes of an organism. Genes are the unit of inheritance that you receive from the

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