Dehydration Synthesis Essay

1012 Words 5 Pages
Now onto the fresh information, the Dehydration Synthesis process and the Macromolecules. I’ll start with the Macromolecules. These molecules are the four molecules all living things need to survive. The four molecules are Proteins, DNA, Carbohydrates, and Lipids. Each of these molecules is made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen at the very least. Proteins have Nitrogen as an added element, and DNA has Phosphate and Nitrogen. The base structure of each molecule has a carbon skeleton. This means that structures have Carbon as the base, in diagrams the carbon skeleton will have many bonds but you can recognize it because it will be in the middle of every molecule. Carbohydrates are the main fuel molecules for cellular work, and they provide raw …show more content…
The building blocks of any macromolecule is called its monomer, and for Carbohydrates its called a monosaccharide. An example of a monosaccharide is glucose from plants. This glucose monomer is used to make more complex disaccharides and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is two monosaccharides bonded by dehydration synthesis, which I will explain later. A polysaccharide is 3 or more (usually thousands) of monosaccharides bonded together to create a very complex sugar. An example of a polysaccharide is glycogen, which is energy storage for animals. Another is chitin, which is building material for the exoskeleton of an insect. One way to recognize them as a Carbohydrate is to count the Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms in the given chemical structure. If the ratio is 2:1 Hydrogen:Oxygen then it is a carbohydrate. Lipids are the second macromolecule. They are called lipids but the common term for them is fats. They are also composed of the elements C, H, and O. Their monomers are fatty acids and glycerol. These bond with each other to make …show more content…
Primary structure is the unique sequence of amino acids that each protein has. The secondary structure takes the polypeptide (many amino acids bonded together) that has formed and folds or coils it into a sheet or alpha helix. The tertiary stage is when the overall 3d shape of the polypeptide is formed. The final stage is quaternary, and that is when two or more polypeptides interlace. An example of a protein is transthyretin, an important transport protein. Another is an enzyme, whose function varies based on the shape that it is given. Enzymes allow all chemical bonds from the dehydration synthesis process to occur at a much faster rate than if there was no enzymes. Enzymes allow life to occur, without them, the reactions would take much too long for life to sustain. The final macromolecule is nucleic acids. They are made from carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, oxygen, and hydrogen. They are built from nucleotides, which are made of nitrogenous bases, a sugar, and a phosphate group. The sugar found in DNA is called deoxyribose, while the sugar found in RNA is called ribose. Nucleotides create the genes of an organism. Genes are the unit of inheritance that you receive from the

Related Documents