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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is environment?
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and the things around us.
What is behavior genetics?
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
What are chromosomes?
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
What is DNA?
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
What are genes?
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
What is a genome?
The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
What are identical twins?
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
What are fraternal twins?
Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
What is temperament?
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
What is heritability?
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
What is interaction?
The effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
What are molecular genetics?
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
What is evolutionary psychology?
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
What is natural selection?
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
What is a mutation?
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
What is gender?
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
What is culture?
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to another.
What is the norm?
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
What is personal space?
The buffer zone we like to maintain around out bodies.
What is individualism?
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
What is collectivism?
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
What is aggression?
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
What is a X chromosome?
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
What is an Y chromosome?
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
What is testosterone?
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
What is a role?
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
What is gender role?
A set of expected behaviors for males and females.
What is gender identity?
One's sense of being male or female.
What is gender typing?
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
What is social learning theory?
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
What is gender schema theory?
The theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.