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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is developmental psychology?
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
What is a zygote?
The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
What is a embryo?
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
What is a fetus?
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
What are teratogens?
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
What is rooting reflex?
A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple of the mother.
What is habituation?
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to actual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
What is maturation?
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
What is schema?
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
What is assimilation?
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
What is accomodation?
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
What is cognition?
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
What is sensorimotor state?
In Plaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
What is object permanence?
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
What is preoperational stage?
In Plaget's theory the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet compregend the mental operations of concrete logic.
What is conservation?
The principle (which Plaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects,
What is egocentrism?
In Plaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
What is theory of mind?
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
What is autism?
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
What is concrete operational stage?
In Plaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
What is formal operational stage?
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
What is stranger anxiety?
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
What is attachment?
Emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
What is critical period?
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
What is imprinting?
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
What is basic trust?
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsible caregivers.
What is self-concept?
A sense of one's identity and personal worth.
What is adolescence?
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
What is puberty?
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
What are primary sex characteristics?
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
What are secondary sex characteristics?
Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
What is menarche?
The first menstrual period.
What is identity?
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
What is intimacy?
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
What is menopause?
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
What is Alzheimer's Disease?
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning.
What is a cross-sectional study?
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
What is longitudinal study?
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time.
What is crystallized intelligence?
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
What is fluid intelligence?
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
What is a social clock?
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.