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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition: Memory
Answer: learning that has persisted over time, information that has beenstored and can be retrieved
Definition: Encoding
Answer: getting theinformation into our brain
Definition: Storage
Answer: retaining information
Definition: Retrieval
Answer: getting the info later
Who are Atkinson and Shiffrin?
Answer: Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin are known for proposing the "unconscious processing" theory for memory
What are the three stages of unconscious processing?

1) Record memories as fleeting sensory memory 2) Process info into short term memory bin, where it is encoded through rehearsal

3) Info moves into long term memory for retrieval

What is the major flaw of unconscious processing?
Answer: Some info skips the first two steps and directlygets coded through long term memory, working memory (short term memory) whichgets selected through consciousness on which is more important and worthy ofbeing put into long term memory
Definition: Automatic processing
Answer: the unconscious encoding of incidental information
What are the information types encoded by automatic processing?

space: the location one is when the memory takes place

time: the recreation of the sequence of the activities in chronological order

frequency: how many times thing occurs

well-learned information: things that are very familiar, such as vocab from one’s first language

Definition: Effortful processing
Answer: memories encoded with conscious effort thatproduce durable and accessible memories
Definition: Rehearsal
Answer: the method toboost our memory through conscious repetition
Definition: Spacing effect
Answer: tendency for distributed studyto yield better long-term retention than is gained by practice
Definition: Serial position effect
Answer: tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
What are the ways to encode information?

visual encoding: encoding of images

acoustic encoding: encoding of sound

semantic encoding: encoding of meaning

Definition: Mnemonics
Answer: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Definition: Chunking
Answer: it’s easier to recall information when organized into familiar, manageable chunks
Definition: Hierarchies
Answer: organization composed of a few broadconcepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts
Who is Sperling?
Answer: George Sperling experimented with memory, eventually discovering "iconic memory"
Definition: Iconic Memory
Answer: fleeting photographic memory where the eyes registeran exact representation of a scene, and can be recalled with amazing accuracyfor only a moment
Definition: Echoic memory
Answer: fleeting auditory memory that enables us to recall a couple words spoken from the mind's echo chamber
Definition: Long-term potentiation (LTP)
Answer: increase in a synapse’s firing potential after rapid stimulation, which is believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Definition: Flashbulb memories
Answer: perceived clarity of memories of surprising, significantevents
Definition: Amnesia
Answer: the loss of memory
What is the difference between implicit memory and explicit memory?


Implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection (Also called nondeclarative memory)

Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (Also called declarative memory)

What are the three R's of Recall?


Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

Definition: Priming
Answer: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
What is Mood-congruent memory?
Answer: the tendency to recallexperiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
What are the three sins of forgetting?

Absent-mindedness: inattention to details leads to encoding failure

Transience: storage decay over time

Blocking: inaccessibility of stored information

What are the three sins of distortion?

Misattribution: confusing the source of information

Suggestibility: the lingering effects of misinformation

Bias: belief-colored recollections

What is the one sin of intrusion?

Persistence: unwanted memories

What are the two types of interference?

Proactive interference: the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

Retroactive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

Definition: Repression
Answer: the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Definition: Misinformation effect
Answer: incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Definition: Source amnesia
Answer: attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
How do you improve memory? C:

Study repeatedly.

Make the material meaningful.

Activate retrieval cues.

Use mnemonic devices.

Minimize interference.

Sleep more.

Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know.