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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is memory?
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
What is flashbulb memory?
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
What is encoding?
The processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning.
What is storage?
The retention of encoded information over time.
What is retrieval?
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
What is sensory memory?
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
What is short-term memory?
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information if stored or forgotten.
What is long-term memory?
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
What is working memory?
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
What is automatic processing?
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
What is effortful processing?
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
What is rehearsal?
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
What is spacing effect?
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
What is serial position effect?
Our tendency to recall best the last and first times in a list.
What is visual encoding?
The encoding of picture images.
What is acoustic encoding?
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
What is semantic encoding?
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
What is imagery?
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
What is mnemonics?
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
What is chunking?
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
What is ionic memory?
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
What is echoic memory?
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
What is long-term potentiation?
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
What is amnesia?
The loss of memory.
What is implicit memory?
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.)
What is explicit memory?
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare". (Also called declarative memory.)
What is hippocampus?
A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
What is recall?
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the blank statement.
What is recognition?
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test.
What is relearning?
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
What is priming?
The activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory.
What is deja vu?
The eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
What is mood-congruent memory?
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
What is proactive interference?
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
What is retroactive interference?
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
What is repression?
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
What is misinformation effect?
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
What is source amnesia?
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.