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Developmental Psychology

Field of study that focuses on the systematic changes that occur during the human lifespan

From womb to tomb

4 Major Issues Focused On

Nature v. Nurture


Continuity v. Discontinuity


Stability Question


Universality Question

Nature v. Nurture

How much our development depends on genetic inheritance and how much comes from experience?

Continuity v. Discontinuity

Is development a gradual, continuous process or does it proceed through a sequence or separate stages?

Stability Question

Do traits that develop in infancy and childhood persist through the life stages or de we change?

Universality Question

Is development the same for children all over the world?

Longitudinal Study

Study the same group over a long period of time

Cross-Sectional Study

Study different ages groups at same time for comparison

Cohort Effect

Different people growing up in different times

Prenatal Development

Period from conception to birth

270-280 days

Germinal Stage

First 2 weeks

Zygote

Embryonic Stage

2-8 weeks

Fetal Stage

9th week until birth

Threats to Prenatal Development

Malnutrition


Teratogens

Teratogens

Environmental influences

List of Teratogens

1. Infectious diseases/STDS


2. Smoking


3. Alcohol/other drugs


4. X-Rays


5. Poisoning (Lead/mercury)

Results of Teratogens

1. Child having disease, conjunctivitis, blindness, death


2. Premature birth, low birth weight, learning disorders, lower IQ, death


3. Distinctive facial features, Learning disorders, premature birth, death


4. Mental retardation, cancer, miscarriage


5. Retardation, coma, death

Early Reflexes

1. Stepping Reflex (0-6 months)


2. Moro Reflex (0-4/5 months)


3. Palmar Reflex (0-5/6 months)


4. Rooting Reflex (0-4 months)


5. Plantar Reflex (0-2 months)


6. Swimming Reflex (0-4/6 months)

2. Falling sensation


3. Grip items


4. Turn head to nurse


5. Stroke baby's foot


6. Will paddle and kick

Reflexes

Responses you are born with

Maturation

Term used to describe a genetically programmed biological plan of emotional development that is relatively independent of experience

Habituation

Decreased responsiveness with repeated stimulation

Temperament

Refers to a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Easy/ Flexible Infants

Calm, set scheduled, respond well to strangers, adapt well

40%

Difficult/Feisty Infants

Not set scheduled, don't sleep at the same time

10%

Slow to Warm Up/Cautious Infants

Not well with strangers, shy, quiet

15%

Temperament Explanation

1. Partially determined by genetics


2. Tends to predict adult behaviors


3. Environment can influence


4. Can't be changed after childhood

New York Longitudinal Study

Attachment

Close emotional relationships between an infant and its caregivers

Develops over time

Mary Ainsworth

Study on attachment quality

Strange Situation

Types of Attachment

1. Secure


2. Insecure/Avoidant


3. Insecure Ambivalent/Resistant


4. Disorganized-Disoriented

Secure Infants

Distress when mother leaves

Insecure / Avoidant Infants

No signs of distress when mother leaves

Insecure Ambivalent / Resistant Infants

Intense distress when mother leaves

Disorganized-Disoriented Infants

Mix of behaviors when mother leaves

Konrad Lorenz

Studied process of imprinting

Imprinting

Formation of a strong bond of attachment on the first moving object seen after birth

Harry and Marguerite Harlow

Studied how baby monkeys form attachments to inanimate objects in the absence of the mother

Importance of comfort/love over food

Diane Baumrind

Studied parenting styles

Types of Parenting Styles

1. Authoritative Style


2. Authoritarian Style


3. Permissive Style

Authoritative Style

Firm, but understanding

Most successful method

Authoritarian Style

Rigid and controlling

Tiger mom

Permissive Style

Anything goes, no limits

Erik Erikson

8 Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development

1. Trust v. Mistrust


2. Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt


3. Initiative v. Guilt


4. Industry v. Inferiority


5. Identity v. Role Confusion


6. Intimacy v. Isolation


7. Generativity v. Stagnation


8.Integrity v. Despair

Jean Piaget

Cognitive Development Theorist

Schema

Mental framework that organizes and interprets information

Assimilation

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

Accommodations

Adapting our current schema to incorporate new information

Adaption

Ability to adjust to new information and experiences

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

1. Sensorimotor Stage


2. Pre-Operational Stage


3. Concrete Operational Stage


4. Formal Operational Stage

There are 4

Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)

Explore and learns to control environment; Object permanence

Peek a boo

Pre-Operational Stage (2-7)

Acquires language and begins to see other points of view

Egocentric

Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)

Mental tasks are performed as long as objects are visible

Pizza example

Formal Operational stage (11+)

Mental tasks using abstract ideas

Abstract

Adolescent brain not fully developed in:

Judgement


Emotional Control


Organization


Planning

Imaginary Audience

Feeling that "everyone is looking at me"

Can lead to self-consciousness or loud, provocative behavior

Personal Fable

Exaggerated sense of one's uniqueness

Feelings of invulnerability can lead to risky behavior

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

1. Pre-Conventional Morality


2. Conventional Morality


3. Post-Conventional Morality

Why do we follow the rules?

Pre-Conventional Morality

Stage 1: avoid punishment


Stage 2: gain material awards

Focus is self-interest

Conventional Morality

Stage 3: good/bad boy/girl


Stage 4: law and order

Post-Conventional Morality

Stage 5: rights of others


Stage 6: abstract moral/ethical principles of justice, equality, respect, etc.

Crystallized Intelligence

General verbal ability and accumulated knowledge

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

Stages of Grief (Dying)

Stages of Grief (Dying)

1. Denial


2. Anger


3. Bargaining


4. Depression


5. Acceptance