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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

sensorimotor stage

[birth to nearly 2 years]

experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping)

developmental phenomenon (sensorimotor stage)

object permanence, stranger anxiety

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

stranger anxiety

fear of strangers that infants commonly display

preoperational stage

[2 to about 6 or 7 years]

representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning

developmental phenomenon (preoperational stage)

pretend play, egocentrism, theory of mind


the peroperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviours these might predict

concrete operational stage

[7 to 11 years]

thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations

developmental phenomenon (concrete operational stage)

conservation, mathematical transformations


concept that properties like mass, volume, and number stay the same throughout all forms of objects

formal operational stage

[12 through adulthood]

abstract reasoning

developmental phenomenon (formal operational stage)

abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning

preconventional morality

Before age 9, most children's morality focuses on self-interest. They obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.

conventional morality

By early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are the laws and rules.

postconventional morality

With the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, people may reach a third moral level. Actions are judged "right" because they flow from people's rights or from self-defined, basic ethical principles.

trust vs. mistrust

[infancy to 1 year]

if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

[1 to 3 years]

toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities

initiative vs. guilt

[3 years to 6 years]

preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans on they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent

industry vs. role confusion

[6 years to puberty]

teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are

intimacy vs. isolation

[teen years into 20s]

young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated

generativity vs. stagnation

[20s to early 40s]

in middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose

integrity vs. despair

[40s to 60s]

reflecting on his or her life, an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure