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20 Cards in this Set

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Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different subjects in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances.
Case Study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Survey
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peple usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
Culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it.
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Dependent Variable
The experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process- that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Population
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for study.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recordign behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Statistical significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Mode
The most frequetnly ocurring score in a distribution.
Mean
The arithmetic average of distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
Median
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
Double-blind Procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have recieved the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies.
Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
Placebo Effect
Any effect on behavior caused by a placebo. A placebo is an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent.
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Random Sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance to inclusion.