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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three types of protists?
Protozoans, Algae, Slime Molds
Describe Early Earth Atmosphere...
(When did oxygen arrive?)
– Water, N2, NH3, CH4 – that’s it!! No oxygen. So where did all the oxygen come from? 1 billion years of cyanobacteria doing photosynthesis and making O2!!
When did the big bang occur?
It created earth about 4.1 billion years ago
What discovery did Louis Pasteur make?
He created a Swan neck flask that disproved spontaneous generation
What experiment did Stanley Miller perform?
with H2O, NH3, CH4 and N2 he created all the monomers that are needed to support life. RNA was certainly the first nucleic acid because is was single stranded (simple).

Hot Clay allowed for Dehydration Synthesis to create these monomers. Replication was needed for life to start.
What are the differences between bacteria and archaea?
Bacteria has no introns and unbranched lipids, Peptidoglycan in the cell wall, and 1 kind of RNA polymerase.

Archae has introns and branched lipids, no peptidoglycan, and many RNA polymerases.
What is peptidoglycan?
Layer of protein and sugar found in the cell wall
What are the three bacteria shapes?
*Cocci – spherical
*Bacilli – rod shaped
*spirochetes- string looking
How can you best grow bacteria in a petri dish
Using food agar and growing in an incubator
What are the three extreme environments that archaea live in?
*Halophiles – Extreme salt
*Thermophiles – Extreme heat and or acid
*Methogans – extreme methane
What are protists?
diverse group of unicellular eukaryotes
What are the two theories on how they evolved?
*Membrane Infolding Theory
*Endosymbiotic Theory
What is the Membrane Infolding Theory?
The idea that the outer cell membrane infolded on itself and created internal “membranes” like ER, GA, nuclear envelope
Endosymbiotic Theory
The idea that at some point prokaryotes “ate” “phagocytized” other already existing prokaryotes and they eventually learned to live in a symbiotic relationship. Classic examples would be mitochondria and chloroplasts. That is why they both have their own DNA – they may have lived by themselves before being engulfed.
Describe Protozoans...
Subgroup of protists
there are four types (classified by how they move):

*Flagellates- move by means of one or more flagella. Classic examples are Giardia – “beaver fever” and Trypanosoma – African sleeping sickness.

*Ciliates – move by means of hundreds of tiny cilia. Classic examples are Paramecium and Stentor

*Apicomplexans – parasites – serious human health issues- classic example is Plasmodium that causes Malaria

*Rhizopoda – Ameba type protozoan’s that have pseudopds “false feet” that engulf food
Describe Algae...
Subgroup of protists
there are five subgroups:

*Dinoflagellates – These have plates on the outside made of cellulose and they often have flagella. The classic example is Gonyaulax which causes Red Tide

*Diatoms – Look like old pill boxes. Shells are made a silica and are tiny, but very numerous. Millions of years of their dead shells make up diatomaceous earth.

*Green Algae – (Chlorophyta) Ancestors of all plants – Classic examples are volvox – (colonial green algae)

*Brown Algae – Darker olive color, and multicellular – Kelp is the classic example can be very, very large – colder waters. “Sea weeds"

*Red Algae – Red color and is deeper in ocean where different wavelengths of light penetrate. Coral reef have lots of red algae.
What are the general characteristics that allowed plants to evolve onto water? (What is the common ancestor of all plants?)
Plants common ancestor is green algae.
- Cuticle
- Leaf
- Stomates
- Xylem
- Spores (1n)
-Apical meristem (tip
What is Mycorrhiza?
: A mutualistic relationship between the fungus – the mycorrhiza - and the roots of many plants. Helps absorb needed water and nutrients and helps protect plant from infections.
What are Bryophytes?
First land plants evolved 400 million years ago. Mosses are the best example also liverworts and hornworts. Dominant gametophyte generation – Alternation of Generation – See page 350 – Sporophytes. No true vascular tissue. Egg and sperms, both 1n, to form sporophyte. Spores grow gametophyte plant. Two completely different plants!!

About 25,000 species of Bryophytes.

Reproduction totally dependent on water.
What are Tracheophytes?
Vascular plants – have xylem and phloem to transport liquids up and down the plant
Describe Seedless Vascular plants...
12,000 species. Were once dominant on the earth during Jurassic period. Reproduction tied to water. Sperm needs layer of water to reach eggs (ex. ferns)
Describe seed vascular plants...
– The seed is a major adaptation to life on land – it is a “ survival packets for life on land”. Seeds can survive for long periods of time and still come back to life. Also instead of sperm the male gamete is now pollen. Pollen is an adaptation to allow reproduction to occur without the need for water – opened whole new niches. Pollination can occur by wind or by animals transporting the pollen to the egg.
What are the two categories of seed plants?
Gymnosperms & Angiosperms
Describe Gymnosperms...
“naked seeds”. (only 800 species left). ex. evergreens – conifers – “cone bearing”)

Gymnosperms have two kind of cones ;
*Pollen cones – male - smaller and just create pollen. Gametophyte.
*Ovulate Cones – (larger) holds egg that when fertilized hold the “naked seed”.
Describe Angiosperms...
– Flowering plants – The flower is the center piece of the angiosperm reproduction system – it holds both the male and female parts of the plant in the same organ.

Stamen and Anther produce and hold the pollen grains.
Carpel with the ovule and Stigma is where pollination takes place. Pollen creates a pollen tube in the carpel.
A fertilized/ripened ovule then develops into a Fruit. Examples of fruits?? Fruit is another adaptation that had helped make the angiosperms be so successful. Fruits supply nutrition for the seeds, plus helps with seed dispersa
Describe Fungi (brief)
(A Kingdom)
fungus evolved together with plants onto the land. No chlorophyl. Examples – Mushrooms, molds, yeast, puffballs etc…
What are Saphrophytes?
fungi that decompose dead material
Describe the composition of fungi and how they make their food...
Fungi absorb their nutrients after digesting there food outside their bodies.
Fungi are made of thin filaments called hyphae, which when taken as a whole – and they can be VERY large - 3.4 miles in diameter– over 2,200 acres - are called a mycelium. See page 360. The hyphae secrete enzymes that digest the plant cells they are invading.
Cell walls made of Chitin, not cellulose.
What are Ascomyceytes?
Ascopores, ascocarps – Yeast, truffles and cup fungi.
60,000 species!! Dikaryotic – fused nuclei
What are Basidiomycetes?
Basidiospores/carps – mushrooms, puffballs. 25,000
What are Lichens?
have a mutualistic relationship between an algae and a fungus, the algae photosynthesizes and the fungus absorbs water