• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gene expression
DNA directs synthesis of proteins indrectly.
1909 - Archibald Garrod
Proposed that genes dictated phenotypic expressions through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions.
Disease = inability to make enzyme.
George Beadle and Borris Ephrussi (1930's)
tested in Drosphilia and mold to find that, when DNA was damaged, a certain protein could not be produced depending on what stage was halted by X rays.
One gene-one polypeptide
the law made by Beadle and Ephrussi that states that each gene codes for a polypeptide (because genes make both enzymes and proteins, and sometimes more than one polypeptide makes a protein.
synthesis of mRNA that carries genetic message to protein-synthesizing machine.
the process of synthesizing polypeptide chains under the direction of mRNA and ribosomes.
Triplet Code/codon
3 nucleotide bases code for 1 amino acid on the mRNA.
template strand
one of the 2 DNA strands that is used for transcription and is read from 3' to 5'.
Marshall Nirenberg (1961)
first deciphered a codon.
start codon, coding for the amino acid Methanine.
RNA polymerase II
takes apart DNA strands and hooks RNA on, assembling RNA in 5' to 3' direction. no primer needed.
DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates.
TATA box
where the transcription factors bind so the RNA polymerase can bind to them.
Transcription Factors
proteins that help RNA polymerase bind to the promoter.
sequence signaling the end of transcription.
Transcription Unit
The complex in which the RNA is transcribed (strech of DNA)
Transcription-Initation complex
RNA polymerase with Transcription factors and promoter.
when RNA nucleotides are added to the 3' end, exposing only 10-20 DNA bases at a time.
Polyadenylation Signal Sequence
the sequence that signals the pre-mRNA to leave the complex and continue to processing. the RNA polymerase doesn't detach until further downstream.
5' cap
at the 5' end of mRNA to protect it, there is a G3P or Guanine 3 Phosphate attached.
Poly A Tail
50-250 Adenines that are added at the 3' end of mRNA to protect it.
untranslated regions that help with binding but not with translation in RNA.
RNA splicing
when the Introns (noncoding sequences) are taken out and the Exons (coding sequences) spliced together.
Small Nuclear Ribonuclearproteins
(snRNP's - "snurps")
RNA and Proteins that help in splicing RNA.
joins with "Snurps" and splices RNA.
RNA on an amino acid with anticodon
matches to codon and is found on the tRNA
amino acid attachment site
3' end of mRNA
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
enzyme that creates aminoacyl tRNA (active tRNA (tRNA with amino acid))
relaxed base pairing rule, mostly relevant to the third base.
A site (aminoacyl tRNA binding site)
first binding place on ribosome where the tRNA can bind.
P site (peptidyl tRNA binding site)
second ribosome binding site where the tRNA deposits its amino acid.
E (Exit) site
site on the ribosome where the tRNA without the amino acid is ejected.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA that makes up ribosomes; made in nucleolus.
exit tunnel
where the popypeptides exit the ribosome.
initiator tRNA
contains the start codon AUG with the amino acid Methionine
initiation factors
bring together components for translation.
reading frame
established by first codon and keeps reading 3 codons at a time.
energy to form complex for translation
Elongation factors
proteins that help with the process of translation. hydrolyze G3P
codon recognition
anticodon pairs with RNA at A site and use 2GTP for energy.
peptide bond formation
when the new amino acid covalently bonds with the amino acid chain. GTP used.
when the used up or "empty" tRNA in the P site is moved to the E site and ejected and the tRNA in the A site is moved to the P site.
stop codon
enters A site to end translation
strings of ribosomes working on the same mRNA
helps the protein fold correctly after translation
signal recognition particle (SPR)
binds fto signal peptide and stops synthesis for a moment in the cytosol, allowing it to bind to receptor protein in ER membrane.
translocation complex
the protein, ribosome, ER complex where the protein is synthesized into the ER.
mRNA (messanger RNA)
carries information specifying amino acid sequences for proteins from DNA.
tRNA (transfer RNA)
adaptor molecule in protein synthesis that translates mRNA into amino acids.
Primary transcript (pre-mRNA)
precursor to mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. intron RNA acts as ribosome to catalyze its own splicing.
signal recognition particle RNA. protein RNA complex recognizing signal peptides of polypeptides targetted to ER>
small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
makes splicosomes with proteins that splice introns in pre-mRNA.
small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)
processing pre-rRNA in the nucleolus.
small interfering RNA (siRNA) or micro RNA (miRNA)
regulation of gene expression.
changes in genetic material of a cell.
point mutations
chemical changes in one base pair of a DNA sequence.
substitution mutations
when a single base is substituted for another base.
silent mutations
mutations with no effect
missense mutations
altered codon codes for amino acid that makes sense but not right sense or amino acid.
nonesense mutations
mutated codon codes for stop mutation and translation is terminated prematurely.
insertion mutation
addition of nucleotide pair or codon.
deletion mutation
deletion of a nucleotide pair or codon.
frame shift mutation
when the reading frame is shifted and all codons downstream are misread.
causes DNA mutations
spontanious mutations
errors in DNA
region of DNA whose final product is either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule.