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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
disease causing
change in geno/phenotype due to assimilation of external DNA by a cell (bacteria most easily take up random DNA and transform into pathogenic bacteria)
Bacteriophages (phages)
viruses that eat bacteria by injecting their DNA, transforming the bacteria, and causing it to produce more phages. made up of only protein and DNA.
one sugar-phosphate backbone with one nitrogenous base.
Chargaffs rules
equivalent number of A=T
Double Helix
2 strands of nucleotides connected by hydrogen bonds
adenine and guanine are twice as wide as their counterparts. (2 circles)
Cytosine and Thymine are only made up of one circle.
Semi-conservative model
model of DNA replication that represents one new and one old strand in each replicated strand of DNA. correct model.
conservative model
wrong model of DNA replication where the double helix seperates to give instructions to replicate other strands, and then forms again so that the original DNA strand is intact.
Dispersive model
Wrong DNA replication model where each strands contains mixture of old and new DNA.
Origins of Replication
sites at which the replication begins.
Replication forks
where the DNA strand is still intact, but the new DNA is working its way toward it. where new DNA strands elongate.
DNA polymerase
catalyzes elongagtion of the replication fork.
Nucleotide triphosphate
a nucleotide with 3 phosphates.
leading strand
new DNA strand going from 5' end to 3' end. going towards replication fork.
lagging strand.
New DNA strand going towards the origin of replication from 5' strand to 3' strand.
Okazki fragments
segments of lagging strand made one by one and connected later.
DNA ligase
joins sugar-phosphate backbone of Okazaki fragments, forming single, new DNA stand.
initial nucleotide chain of RNA.
Enzyme that starts RNA from scratch.
enzyme that untwists helix at the origin of replication.
enzyme that releives stress of untwisting that Helicase causes. This enzyme also works in bacteria DNA replication to seperate the two circles. it works mostly by seperating the DNA strands to swivel, move, or turn them as neccesary.
Single-strand binding protein
Enzyme that binds and stabilizes unpaired DNA strands until synthesis can occur. (DNA is volitile and in dange when unpaired (not two strands connected))
Mismatch Repair
when an enzyme is needed to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
enzyme that takes out damaged DNA and replaces.
takes out bad DNA.
Nucleotide Excision Repair
DNA repair with Enzymes.
Not genes, just repetition of meaningless sequences to postpone erosion of genes (every time DNA strand gets shorter). may have a hand in the aging process associated with the shortening DNA strand and the losoing of Telomeres.
enzyme that lengthens Telomeres.
DNA pol III (Polymerase)
the protein enzyme that synthesizes leading strand/Okazki fragments in DNA replication.
DNA pol I (Polymerase)
removes primer and replaces RNA with DNA.
Histome protein
protein which DNA wrapps itself around.
Frederik Griffith (1928)
date and name of the person who conducted the first experiment involving mice and harmful pathogenic bacteria. he took harmful S and harmless R and found that dead S mixed with live R transformed the R into harmful bacteria that killed the mice.
bacteria takes in DNA from enviroment and changes to suit that bacteria.
Oswald Avery (1944)
Date and name of the man who cunduced a secondary experiment with mice and harmful S and harmless R bacteria. he found that when he seperated all the components of the dead S bacteria, DNA was the only factor that transformed the harmless R bacteria.
Transforming Agent
DNA transforms and therefore is a ______.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
bacteria used by Avery and Griffith in their experiments with mice.
Alfre Hershy and Martha Chase (1952)
name and date - preformed experiment with bacteriophages using radioactive sulfer to track the protein and radioactive phophate to track the DNA and found that DNA was the only thing injected into the bacteria E. coli.
Bacteriophages (phages)
made up only of protein and DNA. biruses that eat Bacteria by injecting DNA and causing the bacteria to produce more phages and eventually burst and release the phages to infect more bacteria.
Irwin Chargaff (1937)
date and name - discovered that the amount of Adenine roughly equaled the amount of Thymine and the amoung of Guanine equaled the amount of Cytosine.
Base pair rules
1953 - Watson and Crick.
double helix is discovered.
X Ray Chrystalography
method of taking photos when they isolate/orientate molecules and photograph.
Rosalind Franklin
expert at Chrystalography and took picture that led to the discovery of the double helix.
two strands of DNA go opposite directions.
5' - 3'
3' - 5'
(DNA replicated/built from 5' end to 3' end)
Hydrogen bonds
bonds between bases
Adenine and Thymine
have 2 hydrogen bonds connecting them between their strands.
Guanine and Cytosine
have 3 hydrogen bonds connecting them between the strands.
Phophodiester bonds
covalent bond in backbone holding nucleotides together.
.34 nanometers
distance between bases (steps of ladder)
3.4 nanometers
one complete turn of helix.
1 nanometer
distance between middle of helix (center) and outside.
Ribose without oxygen.
Ribose (with normal oxygen)
Nucleotide Tri Phosphate
the new base being brough in with all 3 phosphate groups.
(Adenine/Adesonine tri phosphate)
Circular Chromosomes
chromosomes that are connected at both sides and are found only in Prokaryotic cells or mitochondria/chloroplasts.
DNA clamp
a newish discovery of the other protein that binds to DNA polymerase and keeps the polymerase stable.
cell is programmed to die, connected to telomerese running out.
Thymine Dimers
caused by UV rays and happens when two thymines next to each other bond to each other, causing a kink in the chain. (the thymines bulge out and the adenines on the other side come in). is fixed by an excision repair.
DNA proofreading.
when DNA polymerase fixes a mistake before moving on.
Mismatch repair
when a base was mispaired and missed in proofreading. can be fixed by nuclease excising area around mismatched pair and DNA polymerasecoming back.
Excision Repair
when DNA nuclease takes out "damaged" nucleotides and polymerase replaces them. damaged may mean mutated or harmed DNA, not neccesarily though replication.