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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A person's position, or standing, in society.
Division of society according to rank, class, or caste.
Achieved status
A person's standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through action.
Ascribed Status
A person's standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through birth.
A way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealth
A ranked group, determine by birth, often linked to a particular occupation and to South Asian cultures.
A classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogeneous biological traits.
A shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language, or culture
Social Organization
Structural basis of society
Multiple Relationships
Bind people together. Keeps groups from dispersing under stress.
Seen as basic building block of structure in society. Universal practice.
Kingroups/Descent groups
Relatives not spouse or children
Associated with Marraige cross culturally
1- Regulate sexual access
2-Responsibility for Childcare
3- Division of Labor
Arranged marriage
Practical reasons keep relationship together
Love Marriage
Ends more often in divorce
Marry Within group. (I.E. Religion, race/ethic group, social group, Social Economic Status, Age)
Incest taboo
Serial Monogamy
Marry, Divorce, Mary, Divorce.
One Husband, two wives.
One wife, 2+ husbands
Conjugal family
Couple, couple + Kids
Mom, mom's brother, children from father who is with his sister
Mom, dad, kids. More common in Hunter/Gatherer societies.
Extended family
Mom, dad, kids, grandparents, dad's brother and wife. More common in agricultural societies.
Brides family gives money or goods to the grooms family.
Bridewealth/ price
Grooms family gives material or gifts to brides family.
Bride service
Groom performs work for a period of time for brides family.
Social structure
Structural basis. Relationships that bind people together.
Who relatives are defined as. Builds social structure.
Descent group
A group of people who see themselves as related through either a real person, or a mythical/legendary being.
Unilineal Descent group (Patrilineal/Matrilineal)
Only one side of the family is traced/ considered.
Bilateral/ bilineal
Trace descent on both sides.
A group of people who see themselves as related to an identifiable character in history.
Descended from supernatural beings. Jobs are usually religious in nature. Created through the parting of lineages over time.
Do not have same relatives. Trace family based on yourself.
Kinship classification
The name you call someone defines obligations to them and from them.
Hawaiian system. (Simplest Kinship Classification)
Everyone of same gender and generation have the same title (mom, dad, brother, sister)
Eskimo Classification
You, parents, aunt, uncle, brother, sister, etc.
Iroquois Class
Subdivide some groups. Mom's sister is mom, dad's sister is aunt. Dad's brother is dad, mom's brother is uncle.
Cross Cousin
Title given to the children of the sibling of the opposite sex of your parents.
Parallel cousins
Title given to the children of (uncle) dad or (aunt) mom.
Political Organization
The existence of groups for purposes of public decision making and leadership, maintaining social cohesion and order, protecting group rights, and ensuring safety from external threats.
The political organization of foraging groups, with minimal leadership and flexible membership.
a political group that comprises several bands or lineage groups, each with similar language and lifestyle and occupying a distinct territory.
big man system
a form of poitical organization midway between tribe and chiefdom involving reliance on the leadership of key individual s who develop a political following through persona ties and redistributive feasts.
a political unit of permanently allied tribes and villages under one recognized leader.
a centralized political unit encompassing many communities and possessing coercive power
a group of people who share a language, culture, territorial base, political organization, and history
Age set
group of people based on age.
Age grades
Group of people based on stages of life
Common interest associations
Groups you join voluntarily or mandatory
critical legal anthropology
an approach within the cross-cultural study of how law and judicial systems serve to maintain and expand dominant power interests rather than protecting marginal and less powerful people.
a generally agreed-upon standard for how people should behave, usually unwritten and learned unconsciously.
a binding rule created through enactment or custom that defines right and reasonable behavior and is enforceable by thread of punishment.
Legal pluralism
a situation in which more than one way exists of defining acceptable and unacceptable behavior and ways to deal with the latter.
the destruction of a culture and its people through physical extermination
beliefs and actions related to supernatural being and forces
world religion
a term coined in the nineteenth century to refer to religions that had many followers, that crossed state borders, and that exhibited other features such as a concern with salvation.
the attempt to compel supernatural forces and being to act in certain ways.
The belief in souls or "Doubles"
a belief system in which the supernatural in conceived of as an impersonal power.
a narrative with a plot that involves the supernaturals
direct and formalized statements about religious beliefs
a male or female part-time religious specialist who gains his or her status through direct relationship with the supernaturals, often by being "called"
male or female full-time religious specialist whose position is based mainly on abilities gained through formal training
(religious) syncretism
the blending of features of two or more cultures, especially used in discussion of religious change.
religious pluralism
when one or more religions co-exist as either complementary to each other or as competitive systems.
revitalization movement
a religious movement, usually organized by a prophetic leader, that seeks to construct a more satisfying situation by reviving all or parts of a religion that has been threatened by outside forces or by adopting new practices and beliefs.
a patterned form of behavior that has to do with the supernatural realm
rite of inversion
a ritual in which normal social roles and order are temporarily reversed
Primordalist view
Belief that different groups will fight against one another.
Belief that leaders manipulated people to meet their own ends.
View that economic reasons cause conflict.
Expressive culture
Behavior and beliefs related to art, leisure, and play
the application of imagination, skill, and style to matter, movement, and sound that goes beyond what is purely practical
cultural definition of what art is.
the cross-cultural study of music
returning art or other objects from museums to the people with whom they originated
Characteristics of art
Aesthetic (specific to culture)
Binds groups/ separates others
Interlocked across media
Chain Migration
population movement in which a first way of migrants comes and then attracts relatives and friends to join them in the destination
internal migration
population movement within state boundaries
transitional migration
a form of population movement in which a person regularly moves between two or more countries and forms a new culture identity transcending a single geopolitical unit
circular migration
a regular pattern of population movement between two or more places, either within or between countries.
someone who is forced to leave his or her home, community, or country
internally displaced person
someone who is forced to leave his or her home and community but who remains in the same country
development induced displacement
forced migration due to development projects, such as dam building
push-pull theory
an explanation of rural-to-urban migration that emphasizes people's incentives to move based on a lack of opportunity in rural areas (the "push") compared to urban areas (the "pull").
transfer of money or goods by a migrant to his or her family back home
A second culture takes on a practice of a first culture
Internal change
Change when two cultures come in contact. One is more powerful. The other is significantly altered.
culture loss
Things fade out (8-track, tape, LPs)
How cultures change over time. Ethnocentric
Worldwide spread of capitalization
directed change to achieve improved human welfare
form of culture change in which a culture is thoroughly acculturated, or decultured, and is no longer distinguishable as having a separate identity.
population bomb
Growing change. Explosion of people.
Environmental collapse
Environment is being destroyed
Terminal inequality
Inequality gets worse.
Killer culture
Cultures are killing themselves