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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two definitions for evolution?
1) change in allele frequency between generations

2) decent with modifications from a common ancestor
What are the 4 theoretical mechanisms of evolution?
natural selection
genetic drift
gene flow
What is mutation?
Mutation is a change in gene sequence.
3 types: insertion, deletion, substitution
insertion and deletion are frame shift mutations. substitution is the substitution of one or more nucleotide for another nucleotide. insertion and deletion is the loss or gain of a nucleotide in the protein chain.

2 broader types = synonymous and non-synonymous = same protein production and different protein production
What is natural selection?
Differential fitness of a phenotype or genotype in the context of a specific environment.

A trait will aid in the survival or reproduction of an individual based upon their environment. Though a trait that works for one individual in a specific environment may not work in another environment.
What is genetic drift?
Random fluctuation of alleles between generations that has no impact on fitness.

There will be less variability within a population, and more variability between populations.

A gene will try and reach fixation by either reaching 100% or 0%.
What is gene flow?
Two previously isolated populations come together to create novelty genes.

There will be an increase in variability within the populations and a decrease between variability because similarity increases.
What are the capacities for nucleotide bonding?
Adenine bonds with Thiamine (A--T)
Cytosine bonds with Guanine (C--G)
Guanine bonds with Cytosine (G--C)
Thiamine bonds with Adenine (T--A)

Adenine reads as Uracil (A=U)
When does the brain stop growing? (Not developing!)
Age 6 (development stops in your 20s!)
How is skin pigmentation varied?
The closer to the equator you are, the darker your skin pigmentation. The farther away the lighter.
General Adaptation
trait that enhances survival and reproduction in an environment, where a gene is favored by natural selection.
Functional Adaptation
how the environment influences a in the development of a trait (flat headed baby = wear helmet)
Negative Feedback
is the central nervous systems way of responding to a threat/stress
Agents in our blood that respond to invasive organisms
Phagocytic Cells
responsible for showing up and consuming invasive organisms
decide who can bond with the antibodies (who is friend vs. who is enemy)
Type AB Blood
A and B antigens attached to blood cells, and no antibodies. This blood type is a universal recipient!
Type O Blood
Type A and B antibodies, but don't have A and B antigens. They are the universal donor. Only used in an emergency though!
Geographical distribution of
A allele
B allele
O allele
A exists at no greater than 40%
B exists at no greater than 30%
O exists at no lower than 50%
RH system
RH- is only expressed under homozygosity. The first birth is fine, the second is usually terminated because the anti RH antibodies attack the second fetus' red blood cells.
Infectious disease caused by a parasite
Genus: Plasmodium
Species: Falsiparium and Vivax
What is resistant to Malaria?
AA allele and S allele
homozygous recessive and dominant are neither immune to malaria.
What MUST you have in order to receive a blood transfusion from Type AB blood type?
You have to have A and B antigens so that they know not to attack
Change in organ structure an size
What is race?
A social construct. It does not have anything to do with your health. Health is socially and economically affected!
How much energy does the brain demand in infancy?
50% associated with metabolic rate for brain development.
When does infancy stage end?
At approx. two years, with the appearance of the second insidious molar.
When social and sexual maturation is developing. Awkward. Experience the most growth! Ends when your growth plates close, about age 20.
The breakdown of maturation. We are the only species who experience this! (and childhood) It is associated with the grandmother hypothesis.
What are linked to growing rate of obesity?
Undernourishment at the infant/fetal stage. No longer nomadic and increased availability of sugary foods.
Golden Bow (SP)
Cultural and religious beliefs are ranked among societies. Edward Tyler and James Fraser.
what is culture a product of?
Culture and society are a product of your environment
What is inclusive fitness?
You will sacrifice yourself for whom you have a closer or immediate tie with.
Sociobiologists (SP)
Genetic predisposition for aggressive behaviors. Behavior is genetically selected!!!!!
Behavioral Ecology
No behavior is 100% genetic, and can be shaped by our environment to make the most optimal decision!!!
Parental Investment Theory
Competition between males for females aids in more offspring.
Evolutionary Psychology
natural selection can not act on behavior. It acts on genes. Rooted in genes that control outcomes. (Paleo mindset)

Used to explain violence, child abuse, and sexual assault.
Paleo Mindset
Technologically advanced caveman!
Michael Daly, Cinderella Theory
Child abuse. A childs mother who cohabitates is 33% more likely to suffer from child abuse than when both parents live in the house.

Males in particular try to kill offspring of other males where social take over happens.