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419 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hominid Characteristics
Colloquial term for members of the family Hominidae, which includes all pipedal hominoids back to the divergence from African great apes

Large Brain Size
Moderately encephalized brain case
Incisors, thick molar enamal caps
Bipedal Locamotion
Toolmaking Behavior
A kingdom that animals are in. Animals are a major group of multicellular animals that make up the major portion of the animal kingdom; cells are organized in layers or groups as specialized tissues or organ systems.
The Phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates
Animals with segmented bony spinal columns
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
Similarities between organismns based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent
a diagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations between organisms
Biological Species Concept
A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductilvely isolated from other such groups
A group of closely related species
ne of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. It is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
refers to animals which possess more than a single tooth morphology.
able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
International Code of Zoolofical Nomenclature
Members of a suborder of Primates
(Lemurs, Lorises, and tarsiers)
Monkeys (New and Old World)
Specialized [Function]
unknown/could not find
Scientists who study the evolution, anatomy, and behavior of nonhuman primates
The form (shape/size) of anatomical structures; can also refer to the entire organism
animals living in trees
Adaptive Niche
An organism's entire way of life; where it lives, how it eats, how it avoids predators, ect.
Mental Capacity; ability to learn, reason or comprehend and interpret information, facts, relationships, and meanings, ability to solve problems
Arboreal Hypothesis
points out that animals such as squirrels are also arboreal
the median line or median plane of the body or some part of the body of an animal.
a point or pointed edge; a point
Using all four libs ti support the body during locomotion; the basic mammilian (and primate) form of locomotion
constitute a genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
a form of locomotion used by some primates; the animal suspends itself from a branch or other hand-hold and moves alternatevly swinging from one forelimb to the other; also called arm swinging
The moisr hairless pad at the end of the nose, enhances ability to smell (NW)
a family that the Platyrrhines have traditionally been divided into along with Cebidae
a family that the Platyrrhines have traditionally been divided into along with Callitrichidae
Ischial Callosities
Patches of tough hard skin on the butt of Old WOld Monkeys and chimps
All Old World Monkeys are placed in one taxonomic family
The subfamily of Old World Monkeys that include baboons
Common name for memvers of the subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkets and Asian langurs
Sexual Dimorphism
Differences in Physical Characteristics between males and females of the same species.
comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. These cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases or pregnancies. Typically continue until death.
The formal designation for the superfamily of anthropoids that incudes apes and humans
The superfamily Hominoideaa includes the so-called lesser apes of this family.
they are referred to as the "great apes". This family contains 4 species:
Having a diet composed primarily of fruit
Natal Group
The group in which animals are born and raised.
Limbs and Locomotion
-A tendency toward an erect posture
Erect Posture
It is a derieved trait that all primares show to some degree. It's variously associated with sitting
This is an ancestral trait that primates have retained some bonans and certain abilitys that have been lost in more specialized animals. They are not restricted to one form of movement.
the condition of having five digits (fingers or toes) on a limb
a horn-like envelop covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes
Opposable Thumb
Most primares are capable of moving the thumb so that it opposes or comes in contact with the second digit
Tactile Pads
enriched with the sensory neerve fibers at the ends of digits. Enhances the sense of touch
Diet and Teeth
-Lack of Diertart Specialization
Having a diet consisting of many food types
Generalized Dentition
The teeth aren't specialized for processing only one type of food
Dental Formula
number and types of teeth on each half of the jaw.
Tool Making
Unknown/Could not find
Senses and Brain
Primates rely heavily on vision and less on olfaction
Active during the day
Active during the night
Color Vision
Characteristic of all diurnal primates
Stereoscopic Vision
The ability to percieve objects in
Binocular Vision
Vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward-facing eyes.
Bilaterality of Vision
unknown/cannot find
Two halves of the cerebrum that are connected by a dense mass of fibers.
3-D Vision
The capacity for stereoscopic vision depends on each hemishpere of the brain recieving visual information from both eyes and from overlapping visual fields
The sense of smell
General trend among placental mammals
-greater dependence on flexible
learned behavior
Learned Behavior
correlated with delayed maturation and subsequently longer periods of infant and child dependency on at least one parent
Except for some nocturnal species
Threat Yawns
Unknown/Could not find
Unknown/Could not find
Matt Cartmill
physical anthropologist & anatomist at Boston University
Visual Predation Hypothesis
argues that ancestral primates were insectivorous predators resembling tarsiers
-large-eyed arboreal prosimian having foxy faces and long furry tail
Three species restricted to island areas in SE Asia. They live in a wide range of habitats. They are nocturnal insectivores
New World Monkeys
found in a wide range of arboreal enviroments throughout most forested area in Southern Mexico and Central and South America.

Old World Monkies
they are the most widely distributed of all living primates
Lesser Apes
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae (pronounced /ˌhaɪlɵˈbeɪtɨdiː/). The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates (44)
Diane Fossey
an American zoologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups over a period of 18 years.
Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli. The response of an individual
Free Ranging
Pertaining to non-captive animals living in their natural habitat.
Social Structure
The composition, size, and sex ratio of a group of animals
Behavior Ecology
The study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection
Remaining in one's natal group or home range as an adult
Behaviors and behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive fitness
Living in the same area; pertaining to two or more species whose habitats partly or largerly overlap
Home Range
Total area exploited by an animal or social group
Members of the same species
Dominance Hierarchies
Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another
Any act that conveys information in the form of a message to another individual.
Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control.
Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states.
Pertaining to amicable associations between individuals. These include grooming
Picking through gur to remove dirt, parasites, ect. common, reinforces social bond
Reproductive Strategies
The complex of behavioral patterns that contributes to individual reproductive success. The behaviors need not be deliberate
Pertain to an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring
Pertaining to an adaptive stategy that emphasizes relitively lage numbers of offspring and reduced parental care
Sexual Selection
A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex withing a species. It is th result of competition from mates
A mating sytem wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male
A common behavior in many primate species whereby individuals other than the parent(s) hold, carry and interact with infants
Lovejoy's Hypothesis
full bipedalism developed in his response to the male's need to proviion female consurt since males hunted some distnces from their living area
Baboon Model
-Troops (10 - 200 animals)
Geological Time Scale
The organization of earth history into eras
Era System
the break up of the Geological time scale in large portions called Eras
Continental Drift
The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth's surface.
all continents linked together as one and it was called this
the continients that Laurasia doesn't cover
the northernmost of the two super continents after Pangaea broke up
Gradualism Equalibrium
change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages
Punctuated Equilibrium
The concept that evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change
Mosiac Evolution
A pattern of evolution in which the rates of evolution in one functional system vary from those in other systems.
Generalized Traits
a trait that is adaptive for many functions
example: a generalized mammilian limb has 5 fairly flexible digits that is adaptive for many different things (grasping)
the branch of anthropology concerned with fossil hominids.
the branch of science concerned with fossil animals and plants.
the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.
the ecology of fossil animals and plants.
objects or materials made or modified for use by hominids, earliest –stone, bone
The enviromental setting where an archeological trace is found.
"ultimate classification level" of ecological systems
Dating Techniques
placing sites and fossils into a time frame.
Relative Dating
tells that something is older or younger than something else
Absolute Dating
AKA Chronometic Dating

the process of determining an approximate computed age in archeology and geology
Study of the sequential layering of deposits
A relative dating technique based on regular changes seen in evolving groups of animals as well as presence or absence of particular species
Fluorine Dating
use of fluorine to determine the duration of time an object found in the soil has been there. It is a relative dating technique
Radiocarbon Dating
a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon 14 to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years
Fission Track Dating
A method of dating an object that counts the number of tracks made by the breakdown of radiocarbon elements. The older an object is the more tracks it leaves. This method is used mostly on rocks
Half Life
The time period in which one half the amount of a radioactive isotope is converted chemically.
when rocks are heated to the melting point

when no more radioactive isotope is absorbed into an animal or substance
Pertaining to the Pliocene and the first half of the Plieostocene
Adapted for cutting or shearing; among primates
that of at least three extinct primates living in the early Oligocene
Aegyptopithecus zuxus
means “linking Egyptian ape”. It was discovered by E. Simons in 1965. There is controversy over whether or not Aegyptopithecus should be a genus on its own or whether it should be moved into the genus Propliopithecus
Proconsul africanus
the first species of the Miocene-era fossil genus of primate to be discovered and was named by Arthur Hopwood
a genus of apes that is known from Eastern Africa into Eurasia the late Miocene period.
a genus of extinct primates. Fossil remains of animals now assigned to this genus
Bipedal Adaption
several hypothesis that attempted to explain why bipedal locomotion fisrt evolved in hominids.
Large-Bodied Hominoids
Carbon Reservoir
effective range of the time it can be used
premolar teeth with 2 cusps. Traditional teeth located between canine and molar teeth
Sagittal Crest
presence indicated large jaw muscls for intense chewing. Ridge of bone between canine and molar teeth
Nuchal Crest
the thick, transverse crest on the occipital bone
Sagittal Kneel
Thickening of bone on the midline of the frontal or parietals where they meet along the sagittal suture
Brain Endocast
internal cast of a hollow object
Robust Australopithecines
Paranthropus - bipedal hominids that probably desceneded from gracile australopithicines
Gracile Australopithecines
hominids belonging to austropithecus genus. hominids. Now extinct
theoretical construct of anthropologist Raymond Dart. Proposed that certain jagged animal bones found at the Makeepansgat site represent where Australopithecines murdered and cannabalized other Australopithecines
Adaptive Radiation
evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage.
study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (family tree concept)
Stable Carbon Isotopes
12C and 13C are stable carbon isotopes. Naturally occuring. Occur in a natural proportion of 99:1
Flake Tool Industry
making flakes struck off unmodified cores to create tools. Began during the lower paleoluthic period in Africa. Believe Homo Hablis was maker of the tools
Oldowan tool industry
found in olduvai Gorge on Tanzania in Africa
Percussion Flaking
Method of forming a tool flint by striking flakes from a stone corre with another stone or a peice of bone or wood
a lump of stone (like flint) from which prehistoric humans struck flakes in order to make tools
Flake tools
a type of tool created by striking a flake from a prepared stone core
hard cobble used to strike off flakes from another lump of tool stone (core) It is a type of flake tool
Core tools
Core of stone may be discarded after flaking or shaped further into a core tool
all waste material produced during tool-making (specifically when chipped stone tools are involved)
Pressure flaking
method of trimming the edge of a stone tool by removing small lithic flakes by pressuring on the stone with a sharp instrument rather than striking it with a percussor
type of tool used to create prehistoric tools in early stone working
using a pointed implement of wood
a category of stone tool formed by the grinding of a course-grained tool stone
Oldowan Tool Traditions
-stone tools used by hominins in Lower Paleolithic
Acheulean Tool Traditions
Lower paleolithic
Mousetrian Tool Traditions
predominantly flint tools
wathering leading to the loss of argon gas
Specialized Traits
a trait that is limited to a narrow set of functions
field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology
4 types of anthropology
1. cultural anthro 2. archaeology 3. linguistics 4. physical anthro
Holistic approach
examines each aspect
cultural anthro in past, uses secondary evidence; artifacts
examines family structures, trade, or other organizations and influences
Engages with culture to learn language examine pieces of sound syntax grammar and ability to communicate
study of human biology within framework of evolution and emphasis on interaction between biology and culture
Primate studies
study of non-human primates biology and behavior
Human variation
differences in the anatomical features between humans
Human paleontology
study of fossil humans
Biocultural approach
examines interaction of biology genetic makeup and culture
Species concept
depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile inbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups
change of gene frequencies within existing species
Darwinian evolution changes; genetic material lost replaced by new material creates new species
Scientific Method
approach to research where problem is identified hypothesis stated then tested by collecting and analyzing data
way you view things
E Method
empirical - characterized by experimentation
example - pattern - model
thing being tested
the thing being tested - some unanswered natural phenomenon
assessing need: how much an experiment will cost, what instruments are needed, ect
repetition or expansion of original work
broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles
Hemple’s Paradigm
the more plausible answers there are the less evidence there is for one specific answer
Stages of development in the life cycle
Zygote > Embryo > Fetus > Child
fertilized cell
differentiate and build, systems made, heart starts building, systems in place
preborn child
born - continues to grow and develop
continues to develop
Cell structure
Membrane *Cytoplasm *Lysosome *Ribosome
part surrounding cell
liquid throughout largely water
breaks down waste of the cell
structures composed of rRNA and protein. Ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm. essential to manufacture proteins
structures contained within cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
structure that contains chromosomes (DNA)
double stranded molecule that contains genetic code
form of RNA that’s assembled on a sequence of DNA bases
type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis
three nucleotides put together which creates the code for amino acids
Basic units of DNA molecule
to duplicate the DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself
Amino acids
small molecules, components of protein
Polypeptide chain
sequence of amino acids that act alone or in cobo with others as functional protein
Protein Synthesis
production of proteins
pairs of chromosome pairs of the same length
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of the baby (X or Y)
chromosomal complement of an individual
the phase where the cell spends most of its time
chromatin condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome in which the chromatin becomes visible
condensed & highly coiled chromosomes, carrying genetic code, align in the middle of the cell before being separated into two daughter cells
when the cell separates
nucleus forms in both cells and both cells fully separate
discrete structures composed of DNA and protein, found only in the nuclei
sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein
codes position on a chromosome where given gene occurs
alternate forms of DNA, occur at the same locus but may reslut in different expression
simple cell division
cell division in specialized cells resulting in four daughter cells each with half the chromosomes
production of gametes
process to form sperm
process of forming ovum
sex cell
Somatic cell
cells that form the body of an organism
Karl Linne
used Ray’s genus and species to establish binomial nomenclature
Charles Darwin
sailed on Beagle 1831-35, wrote Origin of Species (1859) argument elegant, developed natural selection
Alfred Wallace
(1823-1913) catalyst
Charles Lyell
(1797-1834) founder of modern geology
Comte de buffon Natural History
(1749) King’s gardener believed that when a group oforganisms migrated to new areas
Jean Baptiste Lamarke
(1744-1829) inheritance of acquired characteristics (use
Georges Cuvier
(1769-1832) catastrophism- earth’s geological landscape product of violent cataclysmic events
Thomas Malthus
(1766-1832) economic analysis of population and food supply
change from one species to another
Fixity of species
belief that life forms couldn’t and wouldn’t change
Peppered moth experiment
shows natural selection at work
Natural Selection
the process by which biological traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers
Reproductive success
the passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they can too pass those genes on
Selective pressure
any pressure that reduces reproductive success in a proportion of a population
the ability to both survive and reproduce
Darwin’s Evidence
Finches- beak variation Domestic animal breeding- dogs
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”
is a hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult, animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors
characteristics being a medium between the parents
offspring of individuals that differ with regard to certain traits
Positive assortative mating
choosing mates that are similar
Negative assortative mating
choosing mates that are different
Principles of segregation
genes occur in pairs b/c chromosomes occur in pairs. During gamete formation, the members of each pair of separate alles separate so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. Full amount restored during fertilization
genetic makeup of an individual or alleles at a particular locus
observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism
Mendelian traits
characteristics influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus
Phenotypic ratio
proportion of one phenotype to other phenotypes in that group of organisms (3 tall plants for every short on)
Sickle cell anemia
genetic disorder, malformed red blood cells
PTC testing
ability to taste PTC may be affected by more than one allele
large molecules found on the surface of cells, several different loci govern various antigens on red and white blood cells (foreign antigens provoke an immune response
the expression of two alleles in heterozygotes. In this situation neither is recessive or dominant
Pedigree chart
diagram showing family relationships, used to trace hereditary patterns of particular genetic traits
Autosomal Dominant traits
traits that are dominant and inherited through Autosomes
Autosomal recessive traits
traits that are recessive and inherited through Autosomes
Sex linked traits
controlled by genes located on the X and Y chromosomes
lack of enzyme in blood cells; produces severe, sometimes fatal anemia in prescence of certain foods or drugs
A- clotting factor is missing; B- caused by defective clotting factor. Produce abnormal internal and external bleeding; severe pain
the X, single gene
traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci (stature, skin/hair/eye color)
Polygenic inheritance
traits that are influenced by genes on 2 or more loci
situation that occurs when action of a single gene affects several seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects
Mitochondrial inheritance
inherited from mother, convert energy
Variation (genetic)
inherited differences among individuals
Change in frequency of alleles from one generation to the next
Allele frequency
in pop. Percentage of all alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele
a community of individuals where a mate is usually found
when a gene is altered and allele changes to another
Gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
Random genetic Drift
allele frequency changes
Founder effect
genetic drift from small group to larger successive group
small group left to colonize
Gene pool
all available genes to a certain population
can change allele composition and affect how some genes act
Malaria-parasitic disease
involves high fevers
Plasmodium falciprium
causes malaria by infecting cell
The theory that all humans are descended from a single pair of ancestor
One who maintains that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair
German anatomist who classified humans into five categories
Swedish anatomist who developed Swedish anatomist
long narrow heads
broad heads
Biological determinism
concept that phenomena including behavior were biologically governed
philosophy of race improvement
referring to species composed of populations that differ in the expression of more than one trait
a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement
capacity for learning
loci with more than one allele
gradual change in the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographical region to another
Population geneticists
study of the frequencies of alleles, genotypes and phenotypes in pop from microevolutionary perspective
Genetic variation
variation in alleles of genes occurring both within and among populations
Breeding isolates
populations that are clearly isolated geographically and/or cocially from other breeding groups
breeding within group
breeding outside of group
Hardy Weinberg Formula
p^2+2pq+q^2=1 –mathematical relationship expressing, under ideal conditions- the predicted distribution of alleles in populations
Nonrandom mating
patterns of mating in pop in which individual chooses mate preferentially
type of nonrandom mating where relatives mate more often than predicted under random mating conditions
Slash-and-burn agriculture
created stagnant water increased mosquito pop and malaria infections
Ex of balanced polymorphism
maintenance- of two ro more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
Lactose intolerance
inability to digest fresh milk products
evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat
in physiological context, any factore that distrupts homeostasis
condition of balance or stability within a biological system, maintained by interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes (internal and external)
physiological responses to changes in environment
describes the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
Solar radiation
affects skin color
Neural tube
anatomical structure that turns into brain/spinal cord
Spina Bifida
condition where arch of one or more vertebrae refuse to fuse and form protective barrier around spinal cord
Foliate (A B Vitamin)
important to feal development and sperm and RBC formation
Skin cancer
the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells
UV radiation
electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than a visible light, can cause sunburn and skin cancer
Vitamin D
essential for mineralization and normal growth of bones, deficiency causes rickets
Reproductive hormone
melatonin, helps determine when a woman starts to menstruate, the frequency and duration of menstrual cycles, and when a woman stops menstruating (menopause).
capillaries near skins surface widen, causing more heat to radiate
narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow to skin, causing more heat retention
Bergman’s rule
boy size tends to be greater in pop that live in colder environments
Allen’s rule
colder climates tend to have shorter appendages and inverse in warm climates
caused by reduced barometric pressure, oxygen more spread out
Infectious diseases
transmitted person to person or through vector
agents that transmit disease from one carrier to another
Where disease naturally is found
disease transmitted to humans through contact with animals
proteins produced by some types of immune cells
substances or microorganisms that cause disease (bacteria, fungi, viruses)
pandemic, caused by contact with blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk
severe acute respiratory syndrome- zoonotic transmisiion
Racial purity ideology
eugenics, one race superior
Valley fever
in CA, arid environment, infects mammals, birds, amphibians, and fish
transmitted through ritual cannibalism
passed around in broader contexts
contagious (easily spread) illness caused by a virus
serious and contagious disease that causes a rash on the skin
a severe and potentially deadly bacterial infection
global in nature
migrates very quickly
Incidence rate
rate of how many people actually get disease
Prevalence rate
rate expected to get disease based on past years
Demographic shift
a change in demographic statistics
infection of the digestive tract by a parasite, from eating undercooked food
the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life
lack of calories results in death
lack of protein, vitamin, minerals
lack of protein results in inability to repair cell walls
Beri Beri
lack of vitamin B
naturally occurring solid chemical substance that is formed through geological processes and that has a characteristic chemical composition
chemical compounds that will cause genetic mutation
cause cancer by damaging sections of DNA that control DNA growth
interferes with development of tissue systems, causes birth defects
describes the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
chemical processes with cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
metabolic rate correlates to body size, smaller animal higher BMR

remaining in one’s natal group or home range as an adult
Behaviors or behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive fitness
living in the same area; pertaining to two or more species whose habitats overlap
Home range
total area exploited by an animal or social group
members of the same species
any act that conveys information
vertical posture exposes less of the body to direct sun; increased distance from ground facilities cooling in increases exposure to breezes
Visual surveillance
standing upright provided better view of surrounding countryside (view of potential predators as well as other group members)
Long distance walking
covering long distances was more efficient for a biped than for a quadruped (during hunting or foraging); mechanical reconstructions show that bipedal walking is less energetically costly than quadrupedalism (this is not the case for bipedal running)
Male provisioning
males carried back resources to depended females and young
how the body is formed to create bipedalism
Tool use
how the hominid used tools
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
extinct hominid dated back to 7 MYA
Orroin tugenensis
extinct hominid species
Ardipithecus ramidus
early hominid dating back 4.4 MYA
Kenyanthropus playtops
3.5-3.2 MYA hominid species discovered by Mary Leakey
Australopithecus amamensis
4 MYA hominid species
Australopithecus afarensis
3.9-2.9 MYA
Australopithecus africanus
early hominid 2-3 MYA
Australopithecus aethiopicus
black skull
Australopithecus robustus
2-1.2 MYA
Australopithecus boisei
early hominid from 2.6-2.1 MYA
Homo rudolfensis
1.9 MYA
Homo habilis
2.3-1.4 MYA
Raymond Dart
anthropologist that is best known for finding Australopithecus africanus
Robert Broom
South African paleontologist, found Australopithecus africanus skull Mrs. Pleas and Australopithecus robustus skull
Louis and Mary Leakey
British archeologists, found many early hominid skulls
Hominid Radiation
Several hominid species living at same time and coexisting in some habitats -- Divergent specializations
Prosimian radiation
Eocene epoch, 60 genera might have lived at the same time
pieces broken off
waste material produced during percussion reduction and the production of chipped stone tools
a steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches through eastern Africa
South African archeology site, place where the Taung child skull was found
South African archeological site, Robert Broom’s site, limestone deposits
earliest fossil site of Homo erectus
Dmansi site shows
possible earlier form of home leaving Africa before
Eugene Dubois
(1858-1940)- discovered Java man –skull cap (900 cc’s) and femur
Homo erectus from Java
Early to Middle Pleistocene 1.6-1 million years old
site where scientists found “dragon bones” Franz Weidenreich continued work
a steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches through eastern Africa
East Turkana
archeological site in Kenya where Richard Leakey searched
West Turkana
archeological site in Kenya
site of paleoanthropological excavations in the Awash River valley in the Afar region of Ehtipoia
Ceprano (900-800 ky) Gran Dolina (850-780 ky) Dmansi 1.75 mya
Middle Pleistocene
portion of Pleistocene epoch beginning 780
climactic intervals when continental ice sheets are retreating
Climactic intervals when ice sheets cover most of the northern continent
Early hominids
seem to have replaced areas exploited by homo erectus
Complete Replacement Model
developed Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews (1988) proposes:
The Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional evolution
Associated with Milford Wilpoff
is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances
Partial Replacement Models
Follows previous theory but believes inbreeding happened between moderns and premoderns during migration
Hominid Characteristics
(Limb and Locomotion)
Erect posture-tendency toward erect posture, associated with sitting, leaping, standing (D)

Flexibility- allows for various locomotor behaviors (A)

Prehensility- grasping ability (D)

Pentadactyly- five fingers and toes (A)

Nails- all primates have, except marmosets and tamarins, prosimians have one grooming claw (D)

Opposable thumb- ability to move thumb to touch other fingers or palm (D)

Tactile pads- sensory nerve fibers at end of digits (D)
Hominid Characteristics
(Diet and teeth)
Generalized Dentition
Dental Formula
Hominid Characteristics
(Senses and Brain)
Diurnal vs. Nocturnal
Stereoscopic vision
Binocular Vision
Bilatterality of vision
Ritualized Behaviors
behaviors removed from their original context, sometimes exaggerated